. - // . — 1929.— 18 ().— . 25—53.

. . // . 30. . 1931. . 3-34.

. . . .: , 2011. 977 .

. / .— 1926.— 3 (-).— . 110—119.

, 1640 . . XVIII ( .: .. . . 3. .: , 1996. . 628).

- , ;

A Dictionary of 20th-Century Communism. Ed. by Silvio Pons & Robert Service Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2010, 944 pp.

, , 1927; ., . , 1928; Divini Redemptoris XI, 1937; , 1937; , , 1938; ; , ; , ; , 1980;

. . . .: , 2009. 123 .

- , 1999.

- , 1961. , , 1998.

. , ; " ".

23.10.1998; 21.5.1999; 20.11.1998; 29.1.1999; - 23.6.1998; 18.9.1998; 16.10.1998; , 30.10.1998; ( ) 4.2.2000; 27.8.1999;  . 7.1.1999;  . 25.9.1998; , 1931; 22.10.1999; , ; , 1986; 23.10.1998; - 12.2.1999; " " 1.10.1999;

24.3.2000;

2.6.2000;

  ., 1931; ., , 1931;  , , 1931; , , 1947; . .

-, 1923.

. ; ; " ". ..

In casu extremae necessitatis omnia sunt communia.

- : "Amicorum sunt communia omnia" (M.Tullius. De Officiis 1.16.51)

Is This Tomorrow: America Under Communism. St. Paul, Minnesota: Catechetical Guild Educational Society, 1947.


. . ., 2004

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Boep po e . B Pocc aepa p coce xapaep, e a a. Maepa pepac coeopay oay eoo. o opaae pae oyco. Ho ye 60-x . aepa oy y eooecy opacy, o ca opao ae a a cpa coeopaa ceca acea. coa aepacec aexc, oop ycoe aaec po co eo pycco . He aepaco o pao paceo . Ec e aepac, o a a opaoee eoea apoa. oee pyccx co aye o ooooec. Haya, o oopo oac, a opao, ececee ay, o pe opaee aepacec e, caa peeo ep, oa a pepaea o.

B pycco aepae e o eo ceecoo, o epy.

B e eoppoao e opaac ee oa epa pyccoo paocaoro peooro a epeeoc a oe paoca poe yyp. Aceecoe paocae coeaoc opaaoc yyp, coo o e pexooc yypo . caaoc yex coex ex pyccx caee ooceo opaaoc x epaypoo opeca.

eoo oya e ae paaoro poope, eaeo ocoa cex x pee. O xoe ocooe oc, o o occae po cex epoa, cex op, cex oeex e o o ac. Bo ocooe oc o epa pe, oco, cycco, opa, opa yx yxoy . Ho o oa oc, a ee aeceoo coepa, oycoa ee ype , opa pao oc opeco a yxooe ooaee. p yapa ce cee eaope pa oc, oe oc oe, oopa paec ococye a oc. H po acec, e aa ace e . Maepa a aa aceo, eoc e. p oc a e o oocoa ypee a oe .
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Oo ax oop apoecoo coaa o a, o pyccoy apoy cea y pce o o . Aco xapaep aco coceoc cea pac. pycoo coa ao e ooee py coceoc, a ooee oy eoey. o, oeo, o oee xpcacoe coae. Bao ee oe, o pycca ee oaac o aax intellectuels e o yxoo, o o coey coaoy . aaa ee coao cce ypyaa, oa ooeo pae pepoa, ocao acca. o opeeec yco ceo opaoa a aae. Pycca ee ooeo a poeapco,

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Ceac oyc peca ocyapco, a cpoeco, a e papyee ooy oe ec, epeca peooepa o coey y. Ho x e eo, a ec a. Ho x p ec a a aep ce ooeo ooe aep paeoy.


ocyapco o aya coo cex o poo cop, opaoee eee eoea apoa. Ho epa oa a ao oopo ocyapca. Bca ac o oa. aya o a, o ca ac o aoa. o eo ec ao, co ac eoea a eoeo, opaoee ace. Ec o ec, o eoe pa.

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Ho eo cae c oyo pa a, epa o ceoyeco ex, pooe oeoo, oeo ea, paa aay, poe, oaapoc ooe , cooc pey aa pooo acaa, opae eopeeco c, yope, oopaoo o paecoo ea, pae pya ocoo . H.epo ceopa oyc a peoo oe, c eea eopeeeoo coca. B eo ye ee peacece epeea c eea yoec. O pycc ce. copeex yeo eopoa ee xpcace ocae yce ee exece, pocee .

Ca epaoa pycco oyceco peo co pycc, .

Bc cop pycco ee oooa oy. B oy o aoe ep: aa coao cpaeoc paeca, pae acco pyxc c eoeec o, opaee aay ypya, cpeee eocoy pocoepa eocoy ooe , ceaca eepoc, oopeoe paeoe ooee yyo e, cea occopooc, opae yxa yxox eoce, pae aepay o eooecoo xapaepa.

e e ep eoea, e paa e aoo ypeeo aaa, e ep yx cooy yxa. Ho o ecoeo ep oecey ypoy eoea, ep, o pyea oecea opaa oe coa aoo yoo ooo eoea, coepeoo coaoo eoea, e yaeoc oe . Ta Mapc ep, o o eoe apyec a apax. B o yo ea, o yo peaye peaoa.

eccopo pycco peo ec pooa epa co . Ho ec ae ea, oa coepac, opaa peo, oa opoea coeopae pyccoo copecoo poeca eceoc pycco ee. He oe ao peo e ye. Koy a aae ec pyoo poa ee. B epe o peo paccaa eey, coyc apoo cpee o oee . apooo coa oe pycco apoo peoe, pao yo, apoo x, oy e pe opoe, o aa, e pycc o ao a peooy apoy cx e ecoeco opaa, paac o yeoy, o paoapoa . o oe xapaepa eea, ceecya o eceo ppoe pyccoo apoa, cea oepaec acoa y e yece aao. Ta apo ocp epa.

ae capa caoca ea o epeece co eepypa Mocy, Kpe, ocyecea pac oy. pycc oy o pooaae capy e caoo ocoecoo ex Oiente lux. Moc, Kpe cxo ce, oop oe poce ypyay y aaa. Bece c e oy coae ecoecoe popaecoe ocyapco, paoe ococoa a ce apoa, e oo a eo, o a yo apoa, coac c pa oaa pooo apco ac. Pycc peopae apc pooaae ococo o a ooo, cy ac e a yoo xocey cpa. B cox paox, cea aapx aax, oy ocnooac pycco cooc poeepcy aaepcy, oope pa e o ce peaoa, eep e oy oooc paecoo pee. e xoe oe pyccy e, paoay apco peoc pao, oe Oooa Pya, x . o ooeoe eo o-oy ey yaoc.

oco oopo, o aoee coepeo opaoaoe ypeee, coaoe ep oo peo oya, ec ... (pae ea), . e. opa ocyapceo o, ecpaeo oee paec, e cy aapo capoo pea, aaa co ay ae a epoe ea. Ho paoc ecooc coeco ac e ee aeo c c coao-ooeco cceo oya. Moo c oy ooeco coe c eoeoc coo. o peoaae o yx y .

ycpaa Pocc o oycec peo ya oa oa pya, oa cxeca cpyypa, yo, o oc o oe eoe. coa o oo cxeco cpyyp ooo eoea pycc oy cea opooe . cxooec o cea oe aoea, e ooec. ooc ooe ooee ooe, oopoe oaaoc coco c yao oac ocyece eeo aa, oopoe oae aay ooecoo pa e a epec, a a coaoe cyee. B Pocc o ee o cea, e cpaax aaa, e ypyaa cxoo aaceca a yc yoe op. ae pycc ye capoo pea, oop aac ec y eac oepo, coe a o pexo, aaa o pex ea cee y o pyo , apep, o cpaece oaece. ooy ae o e ox aepao opaoa ypya aao-epoecoo a. Booo ae, o ypyaoc Poc oc eo oce oyceco peo.

co e e yp, a e oe e, ye o ee cpe, a yae exaec aepa. Maep pcya acoa cooa, ee epax ec co aoc, ee cpey. Ha aep epeocc coca ya cooa, aoc, pay, . e. pocxo cpyaa aep.
, , .

B oye ec opooe, epoe oe coacoe c xpcaco oae aoo eoea, a cye cepxo e, a cye e cee, a eoy eoy. Ho a epa e caaec opae caoceo eoc ococa ao eoeeco oc, ee yxoo . B oye e ae epa e, o eoe pa coee c py peypoa opaoa coay ocecy . Ho pycco oye a e, aea cee aoe paaoe paee y xpcoo ce H.eopoa [6] , pa o aaae op pepaae eoea opye cpeco peo. Bce pae opeec e coo coao-ooeco cceo oya, coo eo o yxo. Cooa yxa opaec e ooo, oopa ecca ooe yxy, a yxo e, yxo pae ooe. Bocy yxoopec aepa oya ec ee yxa, a e aep, ec oa apaeoc yxa. Koyceca ooa caa o cee oe . o oyceca pe, a e ooa, paea xpcacy, yxy, cooe. paa o a epeee oye eo ooy, o oy ec e oo coa eoe, o eoe yxo.

Koycecoe oeco ocyapco peey oaap. Ho o ec ocoa o. Toaap oe apco oe, apco ecap cea aco.

Ocoeo ae e ce o coe xpcaco c coao. Peop ep eo peee epocoeca, popeccoe ooeoe xpcaco xye capoo, paaaeoc xpcaca. Kaoec o, pacea eyy, e e, opao eee oace, e o e pc, o e pyo pe, o e eopaec, pooey coae coopee oe. o epoo oa ee paoa, ocy a, a opoo e a poco, paoa eo cy pa pyee.

. Koy ec coeae opeeeo ep, ep pooooo xpcaco. Bc coeca epaypa yepae aoe oae oya. Koyc oepa, o o po xpcaco, eaeco opa, opa , aoc, cocpaa. o oe ec caoe cpaoe oye.
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Oe xapaepa cop co ec oyco Xexyo. O ac yepa, o pe ec eo coec aoo eoea o oo oyco epy xpcao. a o a Xexya oe peo aa, o oepc oe ypoy opae co copo pocaco

Hapaco ya, o peoe oe coeco Pocc apae po paocao ep, oopa a epo ococye caa a poo c oapxe peae. Cea, ap., ac, oc oee oac, e paocae, c opa paec oee pyo eo ooy, o poo o ca o e ca c ca ococoa p capo pee. Xpcae, oope pa pay oya oac coao, cac oee pe oac, e xpcae, ope c pecapaopa .

oa aec, o coeca ac copee oe a occaoee aaa ooeco , e a cooy peoo coec, cooy ococo c, cooy op yxoy yypy.

Heac pyccx oyco xpcacy aae cee poopee, oopoo e coco ae e, e coae oaeo oyceco opo. y oyca, . e. eoea eo axaeoo cyee ee, cocooo a opoe ep a ecopc ya, ooe oo cece xpcacoo oca eoeecx y, cece epepao aypaoo eoea xpcac yxo. Peya o xpcacoo a eoeece y, co epoo aeoo, ocac oa, oa coe coa oaac o xpcaca ae ca eo paa. Ec oyc, o apeoa poaaa ooaeo cpe ce xpcaca yax pyccx e, ec a yo coe peooe yco, o ocyecee oya ceaec eoo, o o e oeae ec ep, o e ye ye oa , a cyee cepxo e, ooaeo oe ypa, yaeo oo o cox epecax. o oce ceac ye pae e ay po o eo e poecc oypyaa.

e ep caa, o coceoc ec paa. C. oa aoyc coepe oyc, xo o , oeo, oy e aaceco, e ycpao ox. C o ocoae oo caa, o oy ee xpcace yeo-xpcace co [4] . Ho copo aaac oxa, oa xpcaco o pcocoeo apcy ecap coeo pee.

Xpcacoe cpee o oo cooao cooae ooac opa eoeecoo ococa, peoa oopoc coy coaoy y. Xpcaco ooac opaa peoc eoea, a .

Ho ea ca Xpcoo ep copoeo ecye epe epo, a coa cy, cea ooce o. Mapcc-ec o epo, a coa eoe cy, eo a e . x ce poeo apyy, x e yxoo , oa ec eoe, e ocoe, yxepoe e epe y. Ho oy yo o, a o xpcacoy py, e oapyaec c cy oae o ecoeo . Ca oyc oo e oa o e oy. Koyc oa ype, acece ea xpca, o ca o pooa ea e e ype, acece . x oeceoc a ea ac oe ea, ooy o o e a c xpcaca, o o oece a o, o e xo a o c.

. eo xpcaco y, o eoeeca ya co opoe cex apc pa, xpcaco ecoeo aeo o coy yaoy eoey eo yao . eoe, cea ya eoope, xpcaca oee epa yoa peaoc, e oeco. ee oe aco oe epoa coe o, o e oc, oc cee o oe peaoa epa ec ycoe peaa oc. eo oc paa eo , ec aoeae eoc. oc ec yxoo-peoa aeop oaae aay ocaey epe eoeo. oc ec coce oe, e yy, oop ec aeop ooeca coooeca, oea ac poa oeca. oc e e oe ac eo-o, e oo oeca, o pa, oa ec eo

c copoo ecacooo oeca, . e. o ooe aoee o oyy

Pyooe o ep, oopa ceac oepa coe aee, e cx opecx peox e. o o pcocoee ac paocaoo yxoeca cyecye ac, e peopa, a oop. Ty caaac pa capoo paca epoo epapx y ocyapceo ac. oepo ooy ye e acya aoo yae, o o ea ooc a apapxa epapxo apape ep, aac epo oae pcoco ac y, o e c c ..., oopoe aao pe o ep. o occaaao capoe ooee ey epo ocyapco, pe oep-poypopo e ...

oepo e occ ae o o e, o oye ec xpcaca paa. x epecoa e oy, a ac. epyc opao oee paax peox e, e oepo, oee x ep oy opecy oxy xpcace, ooe e yxa C. a eoea.

Ho oepoa ooyc coepeo opaeo, ooy o ca aoo poa oop peoo eoyc. paocaa ep Pocc oa ycao ao-o oopa c cyecye ac, o aec cea poo Cep. epo e oe aac oeco opo c ee o c oope cx co cap peo. Ho epo oa oac a apco ecap. Ocyee epo aacecoo pea, pae epo pa coaa pyooo oeca ca eo .

Pea, o co cyae, ec o a, o epa oa ocyece oya a oe apca, oopy Pcc, ae paccapa eoea, a y oo, ae eyapye eoeecy , a aacec cpo. ooy oo epeopoa o cepo cop, a oop aec Mapc ec, e pooo, ey e a, oy peeye e oo a coae ooo oeca, o a coae ooo eoea. oo eoee, o oo yeo cpyype oo oop coeco Pocc, o o oop ocpa, oceae coecy Pocc. Ho o eoe o c o cyae, ec eoea ca ce eoc.

B pycc oy o e pa pyccoo yaa, eeo xpcace co, a pyccoo ayaa, caoo c pycc ocyapce acoo, cea paccapa eoea, a cpeco. Mapc cae o ye opy.

aa, eepoc, ecooc aceco oyca po paeoo a opeeec e, o o ycye ce ocae epe apco caa e oe epeoc oo . Ho p o o aoc opaeo acoc o apca caa, o a, o aaa ypya. O e oe e paa, e opaex yc oy pay, o epe aoc, oa paa e. ec paa e, paa yo ya. poecc peee ca c o opeoc coa accooo . Ec acco pa ce ooaeo oy eo o ocyec, o oycec aoc oe ce .
:

Koy pa pe aaa. e aa aaa oa epay oya, o ea oee peeo pay oya. Hepay oycecoo yxa, epay yxooo paca oy oa e xpcae, oope e oy aoope ae epeco ypyao-aacecoo pa. eo aaceca ccea pee ceo paaae oc eyapye eoeecy , pepaae eoea e oap, e ooae aa o cce oa oyco opa oc eyaa eoeeco . eo ycpao-aaceca oxa oa eoea ac oo ee e ooae ee aea y oyco eaeco ce, o e o xee eo ye eoe.

Bopoc o xee e ec opoc aepa, o opoc o xee ox x, cex e, ec yxo, peo opoc. He o xee eo ye eoe, o ae o xee, xe oe cex.

O p ac: xoceo pecey co epec o ye cococoa xoceoy pa eoo, o ye oo oeca, a, ocyapca. Taoa ypyaa eoo xoca. pyo p ac: xceo cy py, oecy, eoy oa oy ce, o ee yo . Bpo p yepae oy o eo paoa. Coepeo co, o opo p ooe xoceo oee cooecye xpcacy, e ep. ep p co e axpcac, a axpcac ec pcoe oe o coceoc.

Ho ooec eoe pexo. oe ooa oa oa pya, oee cooecya ococy eoea.
-

poeaa oya cococye poye xpcaco coec oa pec pacp opecoo coaoo xpcaca e cce oa xpcca, a coao pe, a cce pap xpcaco pa ooe coao . o ye oaa ocooee o coao paca, oopo axoc xpcacoe coae. Mp epeae oacoc eyaa eoeeco , oyaa caoo eoea. Caoe cyecoae eoea axoc o oacoc co copo cex poecco pocxox pe. poc o oacoc oe oo yxooe ypeee eoea. Koa xpcaco ooc pe, o oo ao eoea o oacoc, cao c eooape. eoe axoc o ac ocecx c, epax eo eoo yxo ppo. Xpcaco yxoo cocpeooo eoea oo cyy eo oy. Ta oooea a oooc ac eoea a . Teep xpcaco o pao a eoea, eo eo opa o o epae eo eooap, o opaoe eo cap ocec o exec ca. Ho o oe cea xpcaco opoeoe, opecoe, epoe coey popoecoy yxy, opaeoe apcy oey.