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Карл Баус

Baus, Karl. From the Apostolic Community to Constantine // History of the Church. Ed.H.Jedin, J.Dolan. Vol. I.

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HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

Edited by HUBERT JEDIN and

JOHN DOLAN Volume I
FROM THE APOSTOLIC COMMUNITY TO CONSTANTINE

by

KARL BAUS

With a

General Introduction to Church History

by

HUBERT JEDIN

CROSSROAD • NEW YORK
The Crossroad Publishing Company 575 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022

Translated from the Handbuch der Kirchengeschicbte, edited by Hubert Jedin Vol. I: Von der ?Jrgemeinde z«r frichristlichen Grosikirche, 3rd ed. ® Verlag Herder KG Freiburg im Breisgau 1962

English translation © 1965 Herder KG

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of The Crossroad Publishing Company.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte. English. History of the church.

Translation of: Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte. Vols. previously issued under title: Handbook of church history. Includes bibliographies and indexes. Contents: v. 1, From the apostolic community to Constantine / by Karl Baus — — v. 3- The church in the age of feudalism / by Friedrich Kempf . [et al.] — v. 4. From the High Middle Ages to the eve of the Reformation / by Hans-George Bedc . . [et aL] 1. Church history—Collected works. I. Jedin, Hubert, 1900- . U. Dolan, John Patrick. III. Title. BR145.2.H3613 1982 270 82-5037 ISBN 0-8245-0314-7 AACR2
CONTENTS

Preface ix

Preface to the English Edition xi

List of Abbreviations xiii-xxiii

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHURCH HISTORY 1

I. The Subject Matter, Methods, Ancillary Sciences, and Divisions of Church

History, and its Relevance for Today 1

II. The Writing and Study of Church History 11

The Writing of Church History: Its Beginning in Antiquity 11

The Writing of History in the Middle Ages:

Christian History, not Church History 15

The Flowering of Church History from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century 23

Church History as a Theological Discipline 32

Church History as an Historical and Theological Science in the Nineteenth

and Twentieth Centuries 35

Church History in England and America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 47

PART ONE: THE BEGINNINGS

SECTION ONE: JEWISH CHRISTIANITY 59

Chapter 1: Judaism in the Time of Jesus 59

The Religious Situation among Palestinian Jewry 60

The Qumran Community 63

The Jewish Diaspora 66

Chapter 2: Jesus of Nazareth and the Church 70

Chapter 3: The Primitive Church at Jerusalem 74

The External Events and Early Environment 74

Organization, Belief, and Piety 77

SECTION TWO: THE WAY INTO THE PAGAN WORLD 86

Chapter 4: The Religious Situation in the Graeco-Roman World at the Time of its Encounter with Christianity 86

Decline of the Ancient Greek and Roman Religions 86

The Emperor Cult 88

The Eastern Mystery Cults 90 '

Popular Religion 94

Chapter 5: The Apostle Paul and the Structure of the Pauline Congregations . . 98

The Religious History of the Apostle Paul 99

The Mission of Paul 100

Organization of the Pauline Congregations 105

Religious Life in the Pauline Congregations 108

Chapter 6: Peter's Missionary Activity and his Sojourn and Death in Rome . . Ill

Extra-Pauline Gentile Christianity Ill

Sojourn and Death of the Apostle Peter at Rome 112

The Tomb of Peter 115

Chapter 7: The Christianity of the Johannine Writings 119

SECTION THREE: THE POST-APOSTOLIC AGE 124

Chapter 8: The Conflict between Christianity and the Roman State Power . . 125

The Beginnings of the Conflict 125

The Persecutions under Nero and Domitian 128

The Court Trials of Christians under Trajan and Hadrian 132

Chapter 9: The Religious World of the Post-Apostolic Age as Mirrored in its Writings 137

Chapter 10: The Development of the Church's Organization 146 ir

Chapter 11: Heterodox Jewish-Christian Currents 153

SECTION FOUR: THE CHURCH IN THE SECOND CENTURY 159

Chapter 12: The Position of the Church under the Emperors Marcus Aurelius and

Commodus. Martyrdom of the Congregations of Lyons and Vienne .... 159;

Chapter 13: Literary Polemic against Christianity 164 I

Celsus ....... 167

Chapter 14: The Early Christian Apologists of the Second Century .... 171

Chapter 15: The Dispute with Gnosticism 181

Basic Ideas of Gnosticism 183 1

The Principal Manifestations of Gnosticism 187

Marcion 190

The Church's Self-Defence and the Importance of the Christian Victory . . 192

Chapter 16: The Rise of Montanism and the Church's Defence against it . 199

Chapter 17: The Expansion of Christianity down to the End of the Second Century .205

PART TWO: THE GREAT CHURCH OF EARLY CHRISTIAN TIMES

(c. A.D. 180-324)

Introduction 215

SECTION ONE: THE INNER CONSOLIDATION OF THE CHURCH IN THE THIRD CENTURY 217

 

Chapter 18: The Attack of the Pagan State on the Church 217

The Persecutions under Septimius Severus 217

The Persecution under Decius 222

Valerian and Gallienus 226

Chapter 19: Further Development of Christian Literature in the East in the Third

Century

The Beginnings of the Theological School of Alexandria 229

Christian Schools in the East 230

Clement of Alexandria 231

Origen 234

Dionysius of Alexandria; Methodius; Lucian of Antioch and his School . . . 240

Chapter 20: The Development of Christian Literature in the West in the Third Century 243

The Rise of Early Christian Latin and the Beginning of a Christian Literature in

Latin. Minucius Felix 243

Hippolytus 244

Novatian 247

Tertullian 248

Cyprian 252

Chapter 21: The First Christological and Trinitarian Controversies .... 254

Modalist Monarchianism 256

 

Chapter 22: Manichaeism 261

Chapter 23: Further Development of the Liturgy 268

Easter and the Easter Controversy 268

Catechumenate and Baptism 275

The Celebration of the Eucharist 281

The Beginnings of Christian Art 235

Chapter 24: Spiritual Life and Morality in the Communities of the Third Century 288

Baptismal Sprituality 288

Devotion to Martyrdom 292

The Asceticism of the Third Century 295

Prayer and Fasting in Early Christian Spirituality 299

Early Christian Morals 306

Marriage and the Family 307

Early Christian Works of Mercy 308

The Attitude of Early Christianity to Secular Civilization and Culture . . . 313

The Early Christian Church and the Pagan State 316

 

Chapter 25: The Holiness of the Christian and his Church 318

Penance in the Shepherd of Hermas 321

Tertullian's Two Views of Penance 324

Penitential Discipline in North Africa in Cyprian's Time 330

The Roman Controversy on Penance and the Schism of Novatian .... 334

Doctrine and Practice of Penance in the East in the Third Century .... 338

Disputes Concerning Penance after the Persecution of Diocletian .... 344

Chapter 26: The Development of the Church's Constitution in the Third Century 346

The Clergy 346

The Bishop and his Church 352

Forms of Organization Larger than the Local Community 353

The Pre-eminent Position of Rome and its Bishop 355

The Controversy about Heretical Baptism 360

Devotion to the Church in the Third Century 365
Chapter 27: The Extent of Christianity prior to the Diocletian Persecution . . 367

The East 369

The West 379

SECTION TWO: THE LAST ATTACK OF PAGANISM AND THE FINAL VICTORY OF THE CHURCH 389

Chapter 28: The Intellectual Struggle against Christianity at the End of the Third

Century 389

Chapter 29: Outbreak and Course of the Diocletian Persecution down to Galerius'

Edict of Toleration 311 396

Chapter 30: The Definitive Turning-Point under Constantine the Great . . . 4C5

Reverse under Maximinus Daia 405

Constantine's "Conversion" to Christianity 407

From the Convention of Milan, 313, to the Beginning of Sole Rule, 324 . . . 416

Chapter 31: The Causes of the Victory of the Christian Religion. The Scope and Import of the "Constantinian Turning-Point" 426

BIBLIOGRAPHY 433

Bibliography to the General Introduction 435

General Bibliography to Volumes I and II 447

Bibliography to Individual Chapters 459

GENERAL INDEX TO VOLUME I 507

 
 
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