The Imperial Church from Constantine to the Early Middle Ages. // History of the Church. Ed. Hubert Jedin, John Dolan. Vol. II. 846 pp.

, 40702.

HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

 

Edited by HUBERT JEDIN and

 

JOHN DOLAN

 

Volume II

THE IMPERIAL CHURCH FROM CONSTANTINE TO THE EARLY MIDDLE

 

AGES

 

by

 

KARL BAUS HANS-GEORG BECK EUGEN EWIG HERMANN JOSEF VOGT

 

Translated by Anselm Biggs

 

A Crossroad Book THE SEABURY PRESS NEW YORK

1980 The Sea bury Press 815 Second Avenue New York, N.Y. 10017

 

Translated from the Handbuch der Kirchen beschichte Vol. II: Die Reichskirche nach Konstantin dem Grossen U/1: Die Kirche von Nikaia bit ChaJkedon © Verlag Herder/KG Freiburg im Breisgau 1973 11/2: Die Kirche in Ost und West von Cha/kedon bis zum Friibmitteiaher 031 -700) © Verlag Herder KG Freiburg im Breisgau 1975

 

English translation © 1980 by The Seabury Press, Inc.

 

Ali rights reserved. No pan of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of The Seabury Pre.

 

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

 

Main entry under title: The imperial church from Constantine to the early Middle Ages. (History of the church; v. 2) Translation of Die Reichskirche nach Konstantin dem Grossen. "A Crossroad book." Bibliography: p. Includes index. I. Church historyPrimitive and early church, ca. 30-600. I. Baus, Karl. II. Series: Jedin, Hubert, 1900- ed. Handbuch der Kirchengeschkhte English; v. 2.

 

BR145.2.J413 1980, vol. 2 [BR200] 270s {270.2] ISBN 0-8164-0444-5 80-12615

CONTENTS

 

Preface xi

 

Preface to the English Edition xiii

 

List of Abbreviations xv

 

PART ONE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHURCH OF THE EMPIRE WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE IMPERIAL RELIGIOUS POLICY (Karl Baus)

 

Chapter 1: From Christianity's Position of Equality to One of Privilege by the

 

Favor of the Emperor Constantine II 3

 

Position of Church and Emperor in 324 3

 

The Growing Privileged Position of the Christian Religion 4

 

Constantine's Baptism and Death 14

 

Chapter 2: Origin and Course of the Arian Controversy to the Death of Con stantine (337) 16

 

The Origin 16

 

The Council of Nicaea and its Outcome 22

 

The Development to the Death of Constantine (337) 29

 

Chapter 3: The Struggle over the Council of Nicaea under the Sons of

 

Constantine 32

 

The Synod of Serdica and its Sequel 37

 

The Religious Policy of Constantius II as Sole Emperor (350-361) .... 41

 

The Double Synod of Seleucia-Rimini (359) 47

 

Chapter 4: The Attempted Restoration of Paganism by the Emperor Julian

 

(361-363) 50

 

Chapter 5: Collapse of Arianism and Definitive Recovery of the Nicene

 

Theology at the Council of Constantinople (381) 59

 

The Religious Policy of the Emperor Valens 61

 

The Work of the Young Nicenes 64

 

The Council of Constantinople (381) 67

 

The Creed of Constantinople (381) 71

 

The Synod of Constantinople as an "Ecumenical" Council 76

 

Chapter 6: Development of the Relationship of Church and State in the

 

Fourth Century: The "Church of the Empire" 78

 

Church and State under Constantine I 78

 

Efforts to Subordinate the Church to the State by the Emperors Constantius

 

and Valens 81

 

Ambrose and Theodosius 86

 

The "Church of the Empire" 89

 

 

 

PART TWO: THE THEOLOGICAL DISPUTES IN EAST AND WEST TO THE MIDDLE OF THE FIFTH CENTURY (Karl Baus)

 

Chapter 7: Christology to the Council of Ephesus (431) 93

 

The Christological Question in the Fourth Century 93

 

The Search of Apollinaris of Laodicea for a Solution 94

 

The Further Development of Christology to 428 96

 

The Conflict between Cyril and Nestorius 100

 

Ephesus 103

 

Chapter 8: From Ephesus to Chalcedon 108

 

Reconciliation between Antioch and Alexandria 108

 

Rise of Monophysitism Ill

 

The Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (451) 114

 

Chapter 9: The Origenist Controversy at the Turn of the fourth and Fifth

 

Centuries 121

 

Chapter 10: The Priscillianist Movement 129

 

Chapter 11: The Struggle with Donatism 136

 

Donatism under the Constantinian Dynasty 136

 

The Golden Age of Donatism under Bishop Parmenian 142

 

Augustine and Donatism 148

 

The Religious Discussion of Carthage (411) and its Sequel 156

 

Chapter 12: Pelagius and the Aftermath 161

 

The Ideal of Morality of the Pelagian Circle 161

 

The Discussion of Pelagianism within the Church 165

 

Julian of Aeclanum 171

 

Theological Augustinianism to the Mid-Fifth Century 174

 

PART THREE: INNER LIFE OF THE CHURCH

 

BETWEEN NICAEA AND CHALCEDON (Karl Baus; Chapter 13, section 3 by Eugen Ewig)

 

Chapter 13: Missionary Activity of the Church 181

 

1. Christianization of the Population of the Empire 181

2.

3. Questions of Missionary Method 213

4.

The Representatives of the Missionary Idea and Missionary Work 213

 

State and Mission 217

 

Christian Mission and Judaism 221

 

5. The First Contacts of Christianity with the Germans and the Conversion of

6.

the Goths 225

 

Chapter 14: The Building of the Organization of the Church of the Empire . 230

 

The Local Episcopal Church 230

 

The Metropolitan Union 223

 

Superior Organization of the Greater Churches 236

 

Ecclesiastical Assemblies . 241

 

Chapter 15: The Further Development of the Roman Primacy from Melchiades

 

to Leo I 245

 

Popes Damasus I and Siricius 250

 

Pope Innocent I 256

 

Pope Leo the Great 264

 

UUIN 1 CIN 1 3

 

Chapter 16: The Clergy of the Church of the Empire 269

 

The Various Orders 270

 

Preliminaries for Admission to the Clerical State 273

 

Clerical Marriage and the Beginnings of Celibacy 277

 

Choice and Ordination of the Clergy 281

 

Privileges of the Clerical State 284

 

The Collegiality of the Bishops 287

 

Chapter 17: The Liturgy 289

 

Differentiation of Liturgies in East and West 290

 

New Features in the Sacramental Liturgy 293

 

The Liturgical Year 302

 

Chapter 18: Preaching and Piety 307

 

Catechesis and Preaching 307

 

Christocentric Piety 319

 

Forms of Asceticism 322

 

Cult of Martyrs and Saints 323

 

Early Christian Pilgrimage 328

 

Survival of Pagan Customs in Christian Popular Piety 331

 

The Laity in the Church 334

 

Chapter 19: Early Christian Monasticism: Development and Expansion in the

 

East 337

 

I. The Religious and Historical Background 337

 

II. Development and Expansion in the East 343

 

1. Egyptian Anchoritism. The Pachomians. The Monasticism of the Deserts of Nitria and Scete 343

2.

The Egyptian Anchoritism 343

 

Cenobitism of the Pachomians 345

 

The Monasticism of the Deserts of Nitria and Scete 354

 

3. Monasticism in Palestine and Syria 357

4.

Latin Monasteries in Palestine 360

 

Syrian Monasticism 362

 

5. The Monasticism of Asia Minor and Constantinople 367

6.

7. Messalianism 371

8.

Chapter 20: The Monasticism of the Latin West 374

 

Rome and Italy 375

 

Gaul 379

 

Spain 385

 

North Africa 386

 

Augustine's Monastic Role 387

 

Anti-Monastic Currents 390

 

Chapter 21: Church and Society 393

 

Marriage and Family 394

 

The Social Sphere 401

 

Magnates and Dependents 403

 

Rich and Poor 406

 

The Cultural Sphere 411

 

PART FOUR: THE EARLY BYZANTINE CHURCH (Hans-Georg Beck)

 

Chapter 22: The Henoticon and the Acacian Schism 421

 

Chapter 23: The Elaboration of the Church of the Byzantine Empire in the

 

Age of the Emperor Justinian I 433

 

V.V^l'N J. x O

 

Chapter 24: Justinian's Zigzag Course: The Origenist Troubles 443

 

Chapter I')-. The Controversy over the Three Chapters and the Fifth General

 

Council. End of the Age of Justinian 450

 

Chapter 26: Justinian's Successors: Monoenergism and Monothelitism .... 457

 

Chapter 27: The Rise of National Churches on the Frontiers of the Byzantine

 

Empire 463

 

The Church of the Nestorians 463

 

The Coptic Church 469

 

The Jacobite Church 475

 

The Church of the Armenians 479

 

Chapter 28: Early Byzantine Monasticism 483

 

Chapter 29: Theological and Religious Literature 488

 

Chapter 30: Organization and Inner Life of the Eastern Imperial Church . . . 495

 

Chapter 31: Missionary Activity of the Early Byzantine Imperial Church ... 504

 

Chapter 32: The Assault of Islam 509

 

PART FIVE: THE LATIN CHURCH IN THE TRANSITION TO THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES (Chapters 33 to 37 by Eugen Ewig; Chapters 38, 39, 42 by Karl Baus; Chapters 40, 41, 43, 44 by Hermann Josef Vogt)

 

SECTION ONE: THE MISSIONARY WORK OF THE LATIN CHURCH 517

 

Chapter 33: The Origins of Christianity in Ireland and Scotland 517

 

Chapter 34: The Conversion of the Franks and Burgundians. Origin and Orga nization of the Merovingian National Church 524

 

Chapter 35: The East Germans and Catholicism: The Conversion of the Sueves and Visigoths of Spain to Catholicism and the Second Flowering of Christian Antiquity in the Spanish Visigothic National Church 558

 

Chapter 36: The Lombards and Italy 574

 

Chapter 37: The Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons and the Beginnings of the Anglo-Saxon Church 585

 

SECTION TWO: INNER LIFE OF THE CHURCH TO THE END OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY 602

 

Chapter 38: North African Christianity from the Beginning of Vandal Rule to

 

the Muslim Invasion 602

 

The North African Church under Vandal Rule 602

 

Christianity in Byzantine North Africa 609

 

The Muslim Invasion and the Ruin of North African Christianity 612

 

Chapter 39: The Papacy between Byzantium and the German Kingdoms from Hilary (461-468) to Serguis I (687-701) 614

 

Pope Gelasius I (492-496) 616

 

Pope Hormisdas (514-523) 622

 

Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) 629

 

Popes of the Seventh Century 633

 

Chapter 40: The Ecclesiastical Organization and the Clergy 636

 

Papal Vicariates 636

 

Spain 636

 

Aries 637

 

Thessalonica 641

 

Parish Organization 644

 

Clergy 651

 

Formation 651

 

Morality 652

 

Celibacy 653

 

Archpriest 656

 

Chapter 41: Liturgy, Care of Souls, Piety 658

 

Liturgy 658

 

Care of Souls 673

 

Preaching 673

 

Baptism 676

 

Penance 677

 

Anointing and Imposition of Hands 682

 

Piety 683

 

Chapter 42: Latin Monasticism from the Mid-Fifth Century to the End of the

 

Seventh Century 690

 

Italy 693

 

Monasticism in the Merovingian Kingdom 699

 

Spanish Monasticism 702

 

The Monasticism of Africa 705

 

Chapter 43: Theological Discussions 707

 

The Church's Confrontation with the Arianism of the Vandals and the Goths 707

 

The Semipelagian Quarrel 722

 

The Quarrel over the Three Chapters 728

 

Consequences of the Quarrel over the Three Chapters 733

 

Chapter 44: The Epilogue of Early Christian Latin Literature 736

 

Boethius 736

 

Cassiodorus 739

 

Gregory the Great 744

 

Isidore 750

 

List of Popes, Councils, and Rulers 757

 

General Bibliography 763

 

Bibliographies for Individual Chapters 775

 

Index 822