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The Imperial Church from Constantine to the Early Middle Ages. // History of the Church. Ed. Hubert Jedin, John Dolan. Vol. II. 846 pp.

 

Content

LIST OF POPES, COUNCILS, AND RULERS

 

Popes

Melchiades 311-314 Vigilius 537-555

Silvester I 314-335 Pelagius I 556-561

Mark 336 John III 561-574

Julius I 337-352 Benedict I 575-579

Liberius 352-366 Pelagius II 579-590

Felix II* 355-365 Gregory I 590-604

Damasus I 366-384 Sabinian 604-606

Ursinus* 366-367 Boniface III 607

Siricius 384-399 Boniface IV 608-615

Anastasius I 399-401 Deusdedit 615-618

Innocent I 401-417 Boniface V 619-625

Zosimus 417-418 Honorius I 625-638

Boniface I 418-422 Severinus 640

Eulalius* 418-19 John IV 640-642

Celestine I 422-432 Theodore I 642-649

Sixtus III 432-440 Martin I 649-653

Leo I 440-461 Eugene I 654-657

Hilary 461-468 Vitalian 657-672

Simplicius 468-483 Adeodatus 672-676

Felix II 483-492 Donus 676-678

Gelasius I 492-496 Agatho 678-681

Anastasius II 496-498 Leo II 682-683

Symmachus 498-514 Benedict II 684-685

Lawrence* 498-505 John V 685-686

Hormisdas 514-523 Conon 686-687

John I 523-526 Theodore* 687

Felix III 526-530 Paschal* 687-692

Boniface II 530-532 Sergius I 687-701

Dioscorus* 530 John VI 701-705

John II 533-535 John VII 705-707

Agapetus I 535-536 Sisinnius 708

Silverius 536-537 Constantine* 708-715

* Anti-Popes.

 

 

 

Councils General Councils

 

 

325 381 431

 

I Nicaea I Constantinople Ephesus

 

Chalcedon

 

II Constantinople

III

451 553 681

 

IV Constantinople

Councils

 

 

Elvira c. 306

Aries 314

Ancyra 314

Tyre 335

Gangra c. 340

Antioch 341

Serdica 342 or 343

Carthage 345 or 348

Sirmium 351 or 352

Aries 353

Milan 355

Seleucia-Rimini 359

Alexandria 362

Valence 374

Zaragoza 380

Constantinople 382

Carthage 397

Turin 398

I Toledo 397 or 400

Carthage 401

Riez 439

I Orange 441

I Vaison 442

Ephesus 449

IN ROME:

462

487 or 488

495

504

601

649

680

IN THE FRANKISH KINGDOM:

Tours 461

Arles 473

Agde 506

I Orleans 511

Epaon 517

Carpentras 527

II Orange 529

II Vaison 529

II Orleans 533

III Orleans 538

IV Orleans 541

V Orleans 549

Tours 567

I Macon 581/583

 

II Macon 585

Narbonne 589

Auxerre 561/605

Paris 614

Clichy 626

Chalon 647/653

St. Jean de Losne 673/675

IN SPAIN:

Tarragona 516

Gerona 517

II Toledo 527

Lerida 546

I Braga 561

II Braga 572

III Toledo 589

II Seville 619

IV Toledo 633

V Toledo 636

VI Toledo 638

VII Toledo 646

VIII Toledo 653

IX Toledo 655

X Toledo 656

Merida 666

XI Toledo 675

XII Toledo 681

XIII Toledo 683

XIV Toledo 684

XV Toledo 688

XVI Toledo 693

XVII Toledo 694

IN AFRICA:

Carthage 484

Junca and Sufes 523

Carthage 525

Carthage 534

Carthage 550

Carthage 594

Carthage 645

IN ENGLAND:

Augustine's Oak 600/605

Whitby 664

Hertford 672

Hatfield 680

Burford 680

Twyford 684

Bapchild 698

Rulers

 

Roman Byzantine Emperors

306-337 Zeno 474-491

337-340 Basiliscus 475-476

337-350 Anastasius I 491-518

337-361 Justin I 518-527

361-363 Justinian I 527-565

363-364 Justin II 565-578

364-375 Tiberius II 578-582

364-378 Maurice 582-602

375-383 Phocas 602-610

383-392 Heraclius 610-641

379-395 Constantine III 641

395-423 Constans II 641-668

395-408 Constantine IV 668-685

408-450 Justinian II 685-695

423-425 Leontius 695-698

425-455 Tiberius III 698-705

450-457 Justinian II 705-711

457-474

 

 

Merovingian Frankish Kings

 

457-481 AUSTRASIA:

 

481-511 Sigebert I 561-575

 

Childebert II 575-596

 

Theodobert II 596-612

 

51*-"4 Theoderic II 596-612

 

534-548 Sigebeft Äj 639_656

 

548-555 Childeric II 662-675 PARIS*

 

511-524 Charibert I 561-567 NEUSTRIA:

 

511-558 Chilperic I 561-584

 

Chlotar II 584-629

 

511-561 Dagobert I 629-639

 

Clovis II 640-657

 

Chlotar III 657-673

 

561-593 Theodoric III 673-690

 

Clovis III 690-694

 

Constantine I Constantine II Constans I Constantius II Julian Jovian

 

Valentinian I Valens Gratian Valentinian II Theodosius I Honorius Arcadius Theodosius II John

 

Valentinian III Marcian Leo I

 

Childeric I Clovis I

 

REIMS: Theodoric I Theodebert I Theodebald

 

ORLEANS: Chlodomir

 

PARIS: Childebert I

 

SOISSONS: Chlotar I

 

BURGUNDY: Guntram

 

Childebert III 697-711

601-603 603-610 610-612 612-621 621-632 632-636 636-639 639-642 642-652 652-672 672-680 680-687 687-701 701-709

 

709- 710

710-

711- 711

712-

Alaric I

 

Ataulfq

 

Sigeric

 

Wallia

 

Theodoric I

 

Thorismund

 

Theodoric II

 

Euric

 

Alaric II

 

Amalaric

 

Theudis

 

Theudegisel

 

Agila

 

Athanagild Liuwa I Leovigild Recared

 

Visigothic Kings

395-410 Liuwa II

410-415 Witteric

415 Gundemar

415-419 Sisebut

419-451 Swinthila

451-453 Sisenand

453-466 Chintila

466-484 Tulga

484-507 Chindaswinth

507-531 Recceswinth

531-548 Wamba

548-549 Erwig

549-554 Egica

554-567 Witiza

567-572 Achila

568-586 Roderic

586-601

 

 

Ostrogothic Kings

 

 

Theodoric 493-526 Witigis 536-540

 

Athalaric 526-534 Totila 541-552

 

Amalasuntha 534 Teias 552-553

 

Theodahad 534-536

 

Vandal Kings

 

Gaiseric 428-477 Thrasamund 496-523

 

Hunneric 477-484 Hilderic 523-530

 

Gunthamund 484-496 Gelimer 530-534

 

Lombard Kings

 

 

Godepert

 

Grimoald

 

Perctarit

 

Cunincpert

 

Luitpert

 

Aripert II

 

661-662 662-671 671-688 688-700

 

700- 701

701-

702- 712 712-744

703-

568-573 573-575 584-590 590-615 615-625 625-636 636-652 653-661

 

Alboin

 

Clephq

 

Authari

 

Agilulf

 

Adaloald

 

Arioald

 

Rothari

 

Aripert

 

Liutprand

BIBLIOGRAPHY

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

The Bibliography in Volume I, pages 435-458, is presupposed. Here are given only source collections thus far not mentioned, as well as new works and new editions, for the period treated here. The titles are listed according to the two principal divisions of the period.

 

A.D. 324-451

 

I. SOURCE COLLECTIONS

 

The Supplement to Volumes 1-96 of Migne's Latin Patrology, edited by A. Hamman, is complete in four volumes (=PL Suppl.); still to follow are addenda and general tables. For the Corpus Christianorum (CChr) appeared J.-M. Clement, Initia Patrum latinorum (Turnhout 1971). Patristic sources are published in the following new series: Patristische Texte und Studien (=PTS), edited by K. Aland and W. Schneemelcher (Berlin 1946?). Texts on Church history and the history of theology, edited by G. Ruhbach et al. (Gutersloh 1966ff). Traditio Christiana (TradChr), text and commentary on patristic theology, edited by A. Benoit et al. (Zurich 1969)-

 

EDITIONS OF LITURGICAL TEXTS: P. E. Brigthman-C. E. Hammond, Liturgies Eastern and Western, I: Eastern Liturgies (Oxford, 2nd ed. 1965); Text us patristici et liturgici (Tpatrlit), ed. Institutum Liturgicum Ratisbonense (Regensburg 1964ff.); Kl. Gamber, Codices liturgici antiquiores (Fribourg, 2nd ed. 1968).

 

CONCILIAR CANONS: P. P. Joannou, Les canons des conciles oecumeniques; Les canons des synodes particuliers; Pubbl. delia Pontificia commissione per la redazione del codice di diritto canonica orientale. Fbnti, fase. IX: Discipline generale antique (IIe-IXe siecles). Tom. 1 (Grottaferrata 1962); Id., Les canons des Peres grecs: ibid., Tom. 2 with Index analytique (ibid. 1963-64); J. Vives-T. M. Martinez-G. M. Diez, Concilios Visigoticos e Hispano- Romanos (Barcelona-Madrid 1963); Concilia Galliae A. 314-A. 506, ed. C. Munier. CChr 148 (Turnhout 1963).

 

EARLY CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS: Inscriptions christianae urbis Romae, new series by A. Silvagni, has been enlarged by A. Ferrua with vols. IV and V (Vatican City 1964-1971); A collection of the inscriptions of the Vatican Museum was published by H. Ziliacus, Sylloge inscriptionum christianarum veterum Musei Vaticani, 2 vols. (Helsinki 1963); E. Diehl, Inscriptions Latinae Christianae Veteres, appeared in a second edition by J.

 

 

Moreau; see vol. IV: Suppl., ed., J. Moreau-H.-I. Marrou (Berlin-Zurich 1967); J. Vives, Inscripciones cristianas dela Espana Romano y Visigoda (Barcelona, 2nd. ed. 1969); W. Boppert, Die fruhchristlichen Inschriften des Mittelrheingebietes (Mainz 1971); See E. Meyer, Einfuhrung in die lateinische Epigraphik (Darmstadt 1973, Lit.); For the Greek and Latin inscriptions of Syria vols. V, VI, and VII must be added (to 1970); A. C. Bandy, The Greek Inscriptions of Crete (Athens 1970).

 

NUMISMATICS: K. Christ, Antike Numismatik: Einfuhrung und Bibliographie (Darmstadt 1967); H. Mattingly-E. A. Sydenham, The Roman Imperial Coinage, VI: From Diocletian to Maximianus (294-313), by C. H. Sutherland; VII, Constantine and Licinius (313 to 337), by P. M. Bruun (London 1966-67).

 

COLLECTIONS OF STATE LAWS: Theodosiani libri XVI cum constitutionibus Sirmondianis et leges et novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes, rec. Th. Mommsen-P. M. Meyer, 2 vols. (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1954); Corpus Iuris Civilis, rec. P. Krueger-Th. Mommsen-R. Schoell-G. Kroll, I: lnstitutiones et Digesta (Berlin, 16th ed. 1954), II: CodexJustinianus (ibid., 12th ed. 1959), III: Novellae (ibid., 7th ed. 1959); C. Pharr, The Theodosian Code. A Translation with Commentary, Glossary and Bibliography (Princeton 1952); P. R. Coleman-Norton, Roman State and Christian Church. A Collection of Legal Documents to A.D. 535, 3 vols. (London 1966).

 

II. PRESENTATIONS

 

1. GENERAL CHURCH HISTORY

2.

J. Danielou and H. I. Marrou, The First Six Hundred Years, Vol. 1 of The Christian Centuries (New York 1964); A. Mandouze, ed., 2000 Ans de Christianisme (Paris 1975); B. Llorca, Historia de la Iglesia Catolica, I: Edad Antigua (Madrid, 4th ed. 1964); K. D. Schmidt-E. Wolf, Die Kirche in ihrer Geschichte, C 1: R. Lorenz, Das vierte bis sechste Jahrhundert (Westen) (Gottingen 1970); R. Kottje-B. Moeller, Okumenische Kirchenge schichte, I: Alte Kirche und Ostkirche (Munich 1970); C. Andresen, Die Kirche der alten Christenheit (Stuttgart 1971); J. Pelikan, The Christian Tradition I: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600) (Chicago 1971).

 

3. CHURCH HISTORY OF INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES

4.

Chr. Papadopoulos, ' lerropia rr/c eKKkr?aia<; ' lepoaokvp.<i}v (Jerusalem 1910); id., ' IcrTopia rrjc ?KKkr?cria<; 'AkeCavopsLac (Alexandria 1935); id., ' loTopia rrjc kKK\T)criac ' Airioxeiac (Alexandria 1951); G. I. Konidaris, ' EKKXT}O-IO!OTI.KT) iarop'ux rijc ' EXXctSoc (Athens 1954); R. Devreesse, Le patriarcat d'Antioche depuis la paix de l'eglise jusqu'a la conquete arabe (Paris 1945); E. Griffe, La Gaule chretienne a l'epoque romaine I2 II2 III (Paris 1964/66); E. de Moreau, Histoire de l'eglise en Belgique I (Brussels, 2nd ed. 1945); Z. Garcia Villada, Historia eclesiastica de Espana I (Madrid 1929); Q. Aldea Vaquero et al., Diccionario de historia eclesiastica de Espana (Madrid 1972ff.); I. H. Deanesley, The Pre-Conquest Church in England (London 1953); M. W. Barley-R. P. C. Hanson (eds.), Christianity in Britain (Lester 1968); L. Gougaud, Christianity in Celtic Lands (London 1932); A. R. MacEwen, History of the Church in Scotland I (London 1913); H. M. Chadwick, Early Scotland (Cambridge 1949); W. Delius, Geschichte der irischen Kirche (Munich-Basel 1954); P. J. Corish (ed.), A History of Irish Catholicism I (Dublin 1967ff.); E. Tomek, Kirchengeschichte Osterreichs I (Innsbruck-Vienna 1935); J. Wodka, Kirchengeschichte Osterreichs (Vienna 1959); Th. Schweiler, Geschichte der katholischen Kirche in der Schweiz (Stans, 2nd ed. 1943); R. Pfister, Kirchengeschichte der Schweiz I (Zurich 1964); B. Bauerreiss, Kirchengeschichte Bayerns I (St. Ottilien, 2nd ed. 1958).

 

5. HISTORY OF EARLY CHRISTIAN LITERATURE

6.

B. Altaner-A. Stuiber, Patrology (New York I960); P. Monceaux, Histoire litteraire de l'Afrique chretienne IV-VH (Paris 1912-1923); P. Courcelle, Les lettres grecques en Occi dent. De Macrobe a Cassiodore (Paris, 2nd ed. 1948); A. Siegmund, Die Uberlieferung der griechischen christlichen Literatur in der lateinischen Kirche bis zum 12. Jh. (Munich 1949); N. K. Chadwick, Poetry and Letters in Early Christian Gaul (London 1955); I. Ortiz de Urbina, Patrologia syriaca (Rome, 2nd ed. 1965).

 

7. HISTORY OF DOGMA

8.

R. P. C. Hanson, Tradition in the Early Church (London 1962); B. Lohse, Epochen der Dogmengeschichte (Stuttgart 1963); A. Dempf, Geistesgeschichte der altchristlichen Kultur (Stuttgart 1964); J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines (London, 3rd ed. 1965); A. Adam, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte I: Die Zeit der Alten Kirche (Gutersloh 1965); A. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition (London 1965); M. Meslin, Les Ariens d'Occi dent 335-430 (Paris 1967); K. F. Morrison, Tradition and Authority in the Western Church 300-1140 (Princeton 1969); H. A. Wolfson, The Philosophy of the Church Father I (Cambridge, Mass., 3rd ed. 1970); E. Boularand, L'heresie d'Arius et "La Foi" de Nicee (Paris 1972).

 

9. HISTORY OF THE COUNCILS

10.

Le Concile et les Conciles (Paris 1960); A. Grillmeier-H. Bacht (eds.), Das Konzil von Chalkedon (Wurzburg, 2nd ed. 1962); G. Dumeige-H. Bacht, Geschichte der okumeni schen Konzilien, I: I. Or'tiz de Urbina, Nizaa und Konstantinopel (Mainz 1964), II: P. Th. Camelot, Ephesus und Chalcedon (Mainz 1963); A. M. Ritter, Das Konzil von Konstan tinopel und sein symbol (Gottingen 1965).

 

11. HISTORY OF LITURGY

12.

J. A. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite, Its Origins and Development (New York, rev. & abridged ed. 1959); A. G. Martimort, Handbuch der Liturgiewissenschaft, 2 vols. (Freiburg 1963-65); M. Righetti, Manuale di Storia Liturgica, I-IV (Milan, 3rd ed. 1964-69); H. A. Schmidt, Introductio in liturgiam occidentalem (Rome, 2nd ed. 1965); Th. Klauser, Kleine abendlandische Liturgiegeschichte (Bonn 1965); J. A. Jungmann, Liturgie der christlichen Fruhzeit (Friburg, 1967); E. Cattaneo, Introduzione alla storia liturgica occidentale (Rome, 2nd ed. 1969); W. Nagel, Geschichte des christlichen Gottes dienstes (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1970); J. Danielou, La catechise aux premiers siecles (Paris 1968); J. B. Schnyder, Geschichte der katholischen Predigt (Freiburg 1969); W. Schutz, Geschichte der christlichen Predigt (Berlin 1972).

 

13. HISTORY OF DEVOTION

H. Delehaye, Sanctus (Brussels 1927); Id., Les origines du culte des martyrs (Brussels, 2nd ed. 1933); A. Grabar, Martyrium, 3 vols. (Paris 1946); B. Kotting, Peregrinatio religiosa (Munster 1950); R. Aigrain, L'hagiographie (Paris 1953); H. Delehaye, Les legendes hagiographiques (Brussels, 4th ed. 1954); Th. Klauser, Christlicher Martyrerkult, heid nischer Heroenkult und spatjudische Heiligenverehrung (Cologne 1960); J. A. Jungmann, Christliches Beten im Wandel und Bestand (Munich 1969).

 

14. MONASTICISM

15.

K. Heussi, Ursprung des christlichen Monchtums (Tubingen 1936); G. Turbessi,Ascetismo e monachesimo prebenedettino (Rome 1961); Theologie de la vie monastique. Etudes sur la doctrine patristique (Paris 1961); Los monjes y los estudios (Poblet 1963); S. Frank, AITEIK02 BIOS (Munster 1964); U. Ranke-Heinemann, Das fruhe Monchtum. Seine Motive nach den Selbstzeugnissen (Essen 1964); B. Lohse, Askese und Monchtum in der Antike und in der alten Kirche (Munster 1969); St. Schiewietz, Das morgenlandische Monchtum, I/III (Vienna 1904-38);// monachesimo orientale (Rome 1958); D.J. Chitty, The Desert a City (London 1965); W. Schatz, Studien zur Geschichte und Vorstellungswelt des fruhen abendlandischen Monchtums (Diss. Freiburg 1957); O. Chadwick, Western As ceticism (London 1958); J. Decarreaux, Die Monche und die abendlandische Zivilisation (Wiesbaden 1965).

 

16. HISTORY OF CANON LAW AND OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION

17.

J. Gaudemet, La formation du droit seculier et du droit de l'eglise au IVe et Ve siecles (Paris 1957); P. Feine, Kirchliche Rechtsgeschichte, I: Die katholische Kirche (Weimar, 4th ed. 1964); W. M. Plochl, Geschichte des Kirchenrechts I (Vienna, 2nd ed. 1960).

 

CHURCH AND STATE

K. M. Setton, Christian Attitude towards the Emperor in the Fourth Century (New York 1941); A. A. Ehrhardt, Politische Metaphysick von Solon bis Augustin II (Tubingen 1959); H. Rahner, Kirche und Staat im fruhen Christentum (Munich 1961); A. W. Ziegler, Religion, Kirche und Staat in Geschichte und Gegenwart, I: Geschichte (Munich 1969); R- Klein (ed.), Das fruhe Christentum im romischen Staat (Darmstadt 1971); P. Charanis, Church and State in the Later Roman Empire (Madison 1939).

 

CHURCH AND CULTURE

G. Schnurer, Kirche und Kultur im Mittelalter I (Paderborn, 3rd ed. 1936); H.-I. Mar rou, St. Augustin et la fin de la culture antique (Paris, 4th ed. 1958); H. Hagendahl, Latin Fathers and the Classics (Goteborg 1958); O. Gigon, Die antike Kultur und das Christen tum (Gutersloh 1966); A. Wifstrand, Die alte Kirche und die griechische Bildung (Bern 1967); M. Simon, La civilisation de l'antiquite et le christianisme (Paris 1972).

 

CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY×EARLY CHRISTIAN ART

C. Andresen, Einfuhrung in die christliche Archaologie = Die Kirche in ihrer Geschichte I B 1 (Gottingen 1971); A. Grabar, The Great Centuries of Byzantine Art (Geneva 1953); F. Gerke, Spatantike und fruhes Christentum = Kunst der Welt (Baden-Baden 1967); R. Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (Harmsworth 1965); A. Khatchatrian, Les Baptisteres paleochretiens (Paris 1962); H. Kahler, Die fruhe Kirche. Kult and Kulturraum (Berlin 1972); P. Testini, Le catacombe e gli antichi cimiteri cristiani in Roma (Bologna 1966); Th. Klauser, Fruhchristliche Sarkophage in Wort und Bild (Olten 1966); F. W. Deichmann, (ed.) Repertorium der altchristlichen Sarkophage, I: re vised by G. Bovini-H. Brandenburg (Wiesbaden 1966ff.); H. Karpp, Die Mosaiken in S. Maria Maggiore zu Rom (Baden-Baden 1966); E. Sauser, Fruhchristliche Kunst. Sinnbild und Glaubensaussage (Innsbruck 1966); G. Schiller, Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst (Berlin 1966ff.); E. Kirschbaum, Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie (Freiburg 1968ff.); A. Grabar, Christian Iconography: A Study of Its Origins (Princeton 1968).

 

III. THE BACKGROUND OF SECULAR HISTORY

 

HISTORY OF THE LATE ROMAN EMPIRE

K. Christ, Romische Geschichte. Einfuhrung, Quellenkunde, Bibliographie (Darmstadt 1973); O. Seeck, Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt V-VI (reprint, Darmstadt

 

; F. W. Walbank, The Decline of the Roman Empire in the West (London 1946); E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire I2 II (Paris 1949-59); S. Mezzarino, Trattato di Storia Romana II (Rome 1956); H. Dannenbauer, Die Entstehung Europas I (Stuttgart 1959); L. Musset, Les Invasions. Les Vagues Germaniques (Paris 1965); F. Lot, The End of the Ancient World and the Beginnings of the Middle Ages (London 1966); R. Remondon, La Crise de l'empire Romain (Paris, 2nd ed. 1970); P. Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London 1971); R. Folz-A. Guillou-L, Musset-D. Sourdel, De l'antiquite au Monde Medieval-Peuples et Civiliasations V (Paris 1972); A. Pignaniol, L'empire Chretien 325 - 395 (Paris, 3rd ed. 1972); A. H. M.Jones-J. R. Martindale-J. Morris,The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, h A.D. 200-395 (London 1971).

HISTORY OF RELIGION AND CULTURE

J. Geffcken, Der Ausgang des griechisch-romischen Heidentums (Heidelberg, 2nd ed. 1929); P. de Labriolle, La reaction paienne (Paris 1936); H.-I. Marrou, A History of Education in Antiquity, (London-N.Y. 1956); H. Mattingly, Roman Civilization (Lon don 1959); K. Buchner, Romische Literaturgeschichte (Stuttgart, 3rd ed. 1962); A. Lesky, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (Bern-Munich, 2nd ed. 1963); ]¶ Straub, Heidnische Geschichtsapologetik in der christlichen Spatantike (Bonn 1963); A. Momogliano (ed.), The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the 4th Century (Oxford 1963); J. Vogt, Der Niedergang Roms. Metamorphose der antiken Kultur (Zurich 1965); J. Straub, Regeneratio imperii (Darmstadt 1972).

 

LEGAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL HISTORY

S. Mazzarino, Aspetti sociali del quarto secolo (Rome 1951); M. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire I/II (London, 2nd ed. 1957); S. Dill,Roman Society in the Last Century of the Roman Empire (New York, 2nd ed. 1958); W. Seyfarth, Soziale Fragen der spatromischen Kaiserzeit im Spiegel des Theodosianus (Berlin 1963); F. Wieacker, Recht und Gesellschaft in der Spatantike (Stuttgart 1964); A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284-002. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey I-IV (Oxford 1964); F. de Martin o, Le istituzioni polit iche e la societa del tardo Impero fino alla caduta della parte di Occidente (Naples 1967); J. Gaudemet, Les institutions de l'antiquite (Paris

 

; J. Gage, Les classes sociales dans l'empire romain (Paris, 2nd ed. 1971); N. Brockmeyer, Sozialgeschichte der Antike (Stuttgart 1972).

BIBLKXIKAFMX

 

4. AUXILIARIES

 

H. Jedin-K. S. Latourette-J. Martin, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte (Freiburg 1970); F. Littell, The Macmillan Atlas History of Christianity (New York 1976); Grosser Hist orischer Weltatlas, Part I: Vorgeschichte und Altertum, ed. H. Bengtson and VI. Milojcic (Munich, 5th ed. 1972); Der Kleine Pauly. Lexikon der Antike, auf der Grundlage von Pauly-Wissowa, ed. K. Ziegler and W. Sontheimer, (Stuttgart 1964ff.); Lexikon der anti ken Welt, ed. G. Andresen-H. Erbse-O. Gigon et al. (Zurich 1965); A. Blaise-H. Chirat, Dictionnaire Latin-Francais des auteurs chretiens (Turnhout, 3rd ed. 1967).

 

A.D. 451-711

 

A. THE EARLY BYZANTINE CHURCH

 

A comprehensive survey of the sources and presentations on the history of the Eastern Church is given in Volume III, pages 487-495. The following titles bring it up to date.

 

ANCILLARY SCIENCES: F. Dolger-J. Karayannopulos, Byzantinische Urkundenlehre, 1: Die Kaiserurkunden (Munich 1967).

SOURCES: In the framework of the Corpus Christianorum appeared a Clavis Patrum Graecorum in three volumes, which includes Greek patristic literature to the eighth century. Already published are vol. II: Scriptores ab Athanasio ad Chrysostomum, ed. M. Geerard (Turnhout 1974), and vol. Ill: Scriptores saec. V-VIII, Concilia, Catenae (1976); I. E. Karagiannopulos, Tlrjyai rfjs ?v?avTivi)s loropiac (Thessalonica 1970).

GENERAL COLLECTIONS OF SOURCES: Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae, Series Berolinensis, ed. H.-G. Beck-A. Kambylis-R. Keydell (Berlin 1967ff.); a second series appears in Washington (1967ff.); J. Meyerdorff, Byzantian Theology, (New York 1976).

COUNCILS: Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Tom. IV vol. 1: Concilium Universale Constantinopolitanum sub Justiniano Habitum, ed. J. Straub (Berlin 1971); besides Tom. IV vol. III: Index Generalis Tom. I-IV. Pars la: Index Codicum et Auctorum, by R. Schieffer (Berlin 1973).

STATE DECREES: P. R. Coleman-Norton, Roman State and Christian Church. A Collection of Legal Documents, vol. 3: 453-534 (London 1966); C. de Clercq, Fontes luridici Ecclesiarum Orientalium (Rome 1967).

HISTORICAL STATISTICAL WORKS: V. Grumel, Les Regestes des Actes du Patriarcat de Constantinople, fasc. 1 (Paris, 2nd ed. 1972), fasc. 4 (Paris 1971); R. Janin, Geographie Ecclesiastique de l'Empire Byzantin, vol. III: Les Eglises et les Monasteres de Constantinople (Paris, 2nd ed. 1969); vol. II: Les Eglises et les Monasteres des Grands Centres Byzantins (Bithynia, Hellespont, Latros, etc.) (Paris 1975).

MONASTICISM: Les Moines d'Orient II-IV (Paris 1961-64), A.-J. Festugiere.

LITURGY: Sancti Romani Melodi Cantica: Cantica Dubia, ed. P. Maas-C. A. Trypanis (Berlin 1970); Romanos le melode, Hymnes, ed. J. Grosdider de Matons, vols. I-IV: SChr

99, 110, 114, 128 (Paris 1964-67); C. A. Trypanis, Fourteen Early Byzantine Cantica (Vienna-Cologne 1968); F. Halkin, Auctarium Bibliothecae Hagiographicae Graecae

 

(Brussels 1969).

 

Materials on Eastern History

 

POLITICAL HISTORY: R. H. Jenkins, Byzantium. The Imperial Centuries A. D. 610- 1071 (London 1966); J. M. Hussey (ed.), The Byzantine Empire, I: Byzantium and its Neighbours, II: Government, Church and Civilisation = The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1-2 (Cambridge 1966-67); L. Brehier, Le monde Byzantin, 3 vols. (Paris, 2nd ed. 1968-70); P. N. Ure,,Justinian and His Age (Harmondsworth 1951); D. Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth (History of Civilisation) (London 1971); A. N. Stratos, Byzantium in the 7 th Century (Amsterdam 1972ff.); C. D. Gordon, The Age of Attila. Fifth Century Byzantium and the Barbarians (Ann Arbor I960); B. Rubin, Das Zeitalter Justinians I. vol. 1 (Berlin I960); J. W. Barker, Justinian and the Later Roman Empire (Madison 1966); P. Goubert, Byzance avant l'Islam, VIe-VIIe siecle, 4 vols. (Paris 1951- 65); St. Runciman, Byzanz = Kindlers Kulturgeschichte (Munich 1970); K. Wessel, Die Kultur von Byzanz (Frankfurt a. M. 1970); Byzantinische Forschungen (Amsterdam 1966ff.); Travaux et Memoires. Centre de Recherche d'histoire et civilisation byzantine (Paris 1956ff.); Collection "Le monde byzantin" (Paris 1966ff.).

CHURCH HISTORY: A. S. Hernandex, Iglesias de Oriente, I×II (Santander 1963); F. Heiler, Die Ostkirchen (Munich 1971); E. v. Ivanka, J. Tyciak, et al., Hdb. der Ostkirchen kunde (Dusseldorf 1971); J. L. van Dieten-C. Mango-P. Wirth, Geschichte der Patriarchen Sergios I bis Johannes VI (610-715) = Enzyklopadie der Byzantinistik vol. 24 (Amster dam 1972); C. Diehl, Byzantium (New Brunswick, N.J., I960).

THE PAPACY AND THE EASTERN CHURCH: F. Dvornik, Byzantium and The Papacy (New York 1966); L. Magi, La Sede Romana nella corrispondenza degli Imperatori e Patriarchi Byzantini, VI-VI1 sec. (Rome-Louvain 1972).

HISTORY OF THE INDIVIDUAL EASTERN CHURCHES: J. Ch. and M. Soumia, l'Orient des Premiers Chretiens. Histoire et Archeologie de la Syrie Byzantine (Paris 1966).

LEGAL HISTORY: R. Guilland, Recherches sur les Institutions Byzantines 2 vols. (Berlin-Amsterdam 1967).

Wellesz-M. Velimitovii, Studies in Eastern Chant (London 1966ff.); J. Grosdidier de Matons, Romanos le Melode et les origines de la poesie religieuse a Byzance (Paris 1975).

 

10. (a) LITERARY HISTORY: P. Lemerle, Le premier humanisme byzantin. Notes et remarques sur enseignement et culture a Byzance des origines au Xe siecle (Paris 1971).

 

(c) HISTORY OF ART: K. Wessel, Reallexikon der byzantinischen Kunst (Stuttgart 1963FF.); D. T. Rice, Art of the Byzantine Era (London I960); J. Beckwith, The Art of Constaninople (London 1961); Ch. Delvoye, L'art byzantin (Paris 1967); A. Grabar, Great Centuries of Byzantine Painting (Geneva 1953).

THEOLOGY AND SPIRITUALITY: W. H. C. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Move ment (Cambridge 1972); L. Bouyer, La spiritualite orthodoxe (Paris 1965); W. Volker, Maximus Confessor als Meister des geistlichen Lebens (Wiesbaden 1965); I. Hausherr, Etudes de spiritualite orientale (Rome 1969).

B. THE LATIN CHURCH

 

SOURCES

The Manuals of Patrology by Altaner-Stuiber and Bardenhewer vol. V; M. Manitius, Geschichte der Lateinischen Lit. des Mittelalters I (Munich 1911); G. de Ghellinck, La Litterature Latine au Moyen Age I (Paris 1939); P. Courcelle, Histoire Litteraire des Grandes Invasions (Paris, 3rd ed. 1964); Wattenbach-Levison, Deutschlands Ge schichtsquellen im Mittelalter, Heft 1 (Weimar 1952); Gebhardt, Hdb. der Deutschen Ge schichte, I , ed. H. Grundmann (Stuttgart 1970); J. F. Kenney, The Sources of the Early History of Ireland I: Ecclesiastical (New York 1929; reprint with supplements: Dublin 1966); K. Hughes, Early Christian Ireland: Introduction to the Sources (London 1972).

 

GENERAL PRESENTATIONS

H. v. Schubert, Geschichte der christlichen Kirche im Fruhmittelalter (Tubingen 1921, reprint ed. Hildesheim 1962); L. Duchesne, Early History of the Christian Church from Its Foundation to the End of the Fifth Century, 3 vols. (London, 1950-57); Daniel-Rops, The Church in the Dark Ages (Garden City, N.Y. 1962); Le Chiese nei regni dell'Europa occidentale e i loro rapporti con Roma sino all' 800 = Settimane di studio del centro italiano di studi sull'Alto Medioevo VII (Spoleto I960); R. Lorentz, Das vierte bis sechste Jh.; G. Haendler, Geschichte des Fruhmittelalters und der Germanenmission = Die Kirche in inhrer Geschichte, Part C 1 and E (Gottingen 1970 and 1961); M. Adriani, L'Europa cristiana. Dal declino delia romanita alle soglie dell'anno mille (Storia del Cristianesimo, Rome 1971).

 

THE PAPACY

E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papsttums II (Tubingen 1933); J. Haller, Das Papsttum I (Stuttgart, 2nd ed. 1953); F. X. Seppelt, Geschichte der Papste II (Munich, 2nd ed. 1955); W. Ullmann, The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages (London, 3rd ed. 1970); P. Conte, Chiesa e primato nelle lettere dei Papi del secolo VU (Milan 1971); L. Magi, La Sede Romana nella corrispondenza degli imperatori e patriarchi bizantini, VI-VU sec.

 

O1DL1UUJV/11 I * *

 

(Rome-Louvain 1972); O. Bertolini, Roma di fronte al Bisanzio e ai Longobardi (Rome 1941).

 

4. CONVERSION OF THE GERMANS AND HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES

 

W. Lange, Texte zur germanischen Bekehrungsgeschichte (Tubingen 1962); K. D. Schmidt, Die Bekehrung der Germanen zum Christentum I×II (Gottingen 1939-42Y, La conversion al cristianesimo nell'Europa del Alto Medioevo = Settimane di studio . . . XIV (Spoleto 1967); A. Hauck, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands I (Leipzig 1922; reprint, Berlin 1954); E. Male, La fin du paganisme en Gaule et les plus anciennes basiliques chretiennes (Paris 1950); E. de Moreau, Histoire de l'Eglise en Belgique I (Brussels 2nd ed. 1945); R. Bauerreiss, Kirchengeschichte Bayerns (St. Ottilien, 2nd ed. 1958); R. Pfister, Kirchenge schichte der Schweiz (Zurich 1964); Z. Garcia Villada, Historia eclesiastica de Espana II: 409-711 (Madrid 1932); A. K. Ziegler, Church and State in Visigothic Spain (Washing ton 1930); K. Schaferdiek, Die Kirche in den Reichen der Westgoten und Sueben bis zur Errichtung der katholischen Staatskirche (Berlin 1967); D. Claude, Adel, Kirche und Konig tum im Westgotenreich (Sigmaringen 1971); K. Hughes, The Church in Early Irish Society (London 1966); L. Hardinge, The Celtic Church in Britain (London 1972); J. T. McNeill, The Celtic Churches. A History, A. D. 200-1200 (Chicago-London 1974); H. Mayr-Harting, The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England (London 1972); C. J. Godfrey, The Church in Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge 1962).

 

5. MONASTICISM

 

11 Monachesimo nell'Alto Medioevo e la formazione delia civilta occidentale = Settimane di studio ... IV (Spoleto 1957); J. Leclercq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God (New York 1963); G. Penco, Storia del monachesimo in Italia I (Rome 1961); Ph. Schmitz, Histoire de l'ordre de Saint Benoit I×II (Maredsous, 2nd ed. 1948-49); F. Prinz; Fruhes Monchtum im Frankenreich (4.-8. Jn.; Munich-Vienna 1965); J. Ryan, Early Irish Monasticism (Dublin 1931).

 

SPIRITUALITY

J. Leclercq et al., Spirituality of the Middle Ages (London 1968) J. Leclercq, Aux sources de la spiritualite occidentale (Paris 1964); La Bibbia nell'Alto Medioevo = Settimane di studio ... X (Spoleto 1963); F. Graus, Volk, Herrscher und Heilige im Reich der Merowinger (Prague 1965).

 

CANON LAW

C. de Clercq, La legislation religieuse franque de Clovis a Charlemagne, 507-814, 2 vols. (Louvain 1936-58); H. E. Feine, Kirchliche Rechtsgeschichte, I: Die Katholische Kirche (Weimar, 5th ed. 1972); A. W. Ziegler, Religion, Kirche und Staat in Geschichte und Gegenwart, I: Geschichte (Munich 1969); E. Lesne, La propriete ecclesiastique en France aux epoques romaine et merovingienne (Paris 1910); S. Mochi Onory, Vescovi e citta (sec. IV-VI; Bologna 1933); G. Vismara, Audientia episcopalis (Milan 1937); F. Lot-R. Fawtier, Histoire des institutions francaises au Moyen Age, III: Institutions ecclesiastiques (Paris

 

 

 

÷

 

I

 

L × ×

BIBLIOGRAPHY TO INDIVIDUAL CHAPTERS Part One

 

The Development of the Church of the Empire within the Framework of the Imperial Religious Policy

 

1. From Christianity's Position of Equality to One of Privilege by the Favor of the Emperor Constantine I

 

SOURCES

 

First must be named those given in Vol. I, chaps. 29 and 30. A new edition of the Vita Constantini for the GCS is being prepared by F. Winkelmann; cf. id., Die Textbezeugung der Vita Constantini des Eusebius von Caesarea (Berlin 1962, TU 84); id., "Zur Ge schichte des Authentizitatsproblems der Vita Constantini," Klio 40 (1962), 187-243. Constantine's letters and decrees are treated in Vol. I, chap. 30, of the work, already cited, by H. Dorries, 55-226, and H. Kraft, 207-270. Important now are Vol. I, pp. 58f., with the editions of the cited works of the Christian Church historians and chronic lers, and the works of the secular historians, especially Zosimus Historia nova, ed. L. Mendelssohn (Leipzig 1887, reprint ed. Hildesheim 1963); the Chronographia of Johannes Malalas, ed. J. Dindorf, CSHB 15 (Bonn 1831); the Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, ed. C. de Boor (Leipzig 1883-5, reprint ed. Hildesheim 1963); the Chroni- con Paschale, ed. Th. Mommsen: Chronica Minora I, 203ff. On the Latin side: Ammianus Marcellinus, Res gestae, ed. C. U. Clark (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1962) or J. C. Rolfe (latest edition London 1950-52); the Anonymus Valesianus, ed. Th. Mommsen: Chronica Min ora I, 259ff- or L. A. Muratori, Rerum ltalicarum scriptores 24, 4 (Milan 1913). A survey of the lesser sources of the fourth century is given by A. Piganiol, L'Empire Chretien (325-395) (Paris, 2nd ed. 1972), 467-473.×Coinage: The Roman Imperial Coinage, VII: Constantine and Licinius, A.D. 313-337, by P. M. Bruun (London 1966).

 

LITERATURE

 

Besides the works cited in Vol. I: G. Bardy, "La politique religieuse de Constantin apres le concile de Nicee," RevSR 8 (1928), 516-551; I. Karayannopoulos, "Konstantin der Grosse und der Kaiserkult," Historia 5 (1956), 341-357^ K. Aland, "Der Abbau des Herrscherkultes im Zeitalter Konstantins," Kirchengesch. Entwurfe (Gutersloh 1960), 240-256; H. Dorries, "Konstantinische Wende und Glaubensfreiheit," Wort und Stunde I (Gottingen 1966), 1-117; C. Dupont, "Les privileges des clercs sous Constantin,"

RHE 62 (1967), 729-752; R. MacMullen, Constantine (New York 1969); J. H. Smith, Constantine the Great (London 1971).

 

ON CONSTANTINE'S BUILDING ACTIVITY: General: L. Voelkl, "Die Konstantinischen Kirchenbauten nach Eusebius," RivAC 29 (1953), 49-66, 187-206; J. B. Ward Perkins, "Constantine and the Origins of the Christian Basilica," Papers of the British School at Rome 22 (1954), 69-90; R. Krautheimer, "The Constantinian Basilica," DOP 21 (1967), 115-140.×Palestine: C. Kopp, Palastina-Hefte des Dt. Vereins vom Heiligen Land 21-23 (1939), 117ff.;J. W. Crowfoot, Early Churches of Palestine (London 1941); E. Wifstrand, Goteborgs Hogskola Arskrift 58 (1952), Iff.×Rome: R. Vielliard, Recherches sur les origines de la Rome chretienne (Macon 1941); F. W. Deichmann, Fruhchristliche Kirchen in Rom (Basel 1948); R. Krautheimer et al., Corpus Basiiicarum christianarum Romae III (Rome 1967).×For Trier the reports of the excavation in the cathedral area by K. Th. Kempf: Neue Ausgrabungen in Deutschland (Berlin 1958), 368-379, and "Untersuchungen und Beobachtungen am Trierer Dom," Germania 42 (1964), 126-141.×Constantinople: H. Leclercq, "Byzance," DACL II/l, 1375-1388; A. Heisenberg, Grabeskirche und Apostel kirche, 2 vols. (Leipzig 1908); V. Schultze, Altchristliche Stadte und Landschaften I (Leip zig 1913); E. Gerland, "Byzanz und die Grundung der Stadt Konstantinopel," BNJ 10 (1933), 93-105; R. Janin, Constantinople byzantine (Paris 1950); id., La geographie ecclesiastique de l'empire byzantin 1/3: Les eglises et les monasteres (Paris 1953); G. Downey, "The Builder of the Original Church of the Apostles at Constantinople," DOP 6 (1951), 53-80; Ph. Grierson, "The Tombs of the Byzantine Emperors," DOP 16 (1961), 1-63; G. Bovini, "Le tombe degli imperatori d'Oriente dei secoli IV, V, VI," IX" Corso di cultura sull'arte ravennate e bizantina (Ravenna 1962), 155-178.

 

ON CONSTANTINE'S BAPTISM AND BURIAL: F. J. Dolger, "Die Taufe Konstantins und ihre religiosen Probleme," Konstantin d. Gr. und seine Zeit, 19- Suppl. Heft of the RQ (Freiburg 1913), 377-477; H. Kraft, "Zur Taufe Kaiser Konstantins," Stpatr I (TU 63, Berlin 1957), 642-648. ×A. Kaniuth, Die Beisetzung Konstantins d. Gr. (Breslau 1941, Breslauer Hist. Forschungen 18); A. Grabar, Martyrium 1 (Paris 1946), 227-234.

 

2. Origin and Course of the Arian Controversy to the Death of Constantine

 

(337)

 

SOURCES

 

Besides the works of the Church historians, Eusebius, Philostorgius, Socrates, Sozo- men, and Theodoret: G. H. Opitz, Urkunden zur Geschichte des arianischen Streites (318-328) = Athanasius, Werke III 1 (Berlin 1934). The extant fragments from Arius's writings in G. Bardy, Recherches sur Lucien d'Antioche et son ecole (Paris 1936), 216-278. The other writings of Athanasius in the Berlin edition, continued by W. Schneemelcher and M. Tetz, otherwise still PG 2 5-28. Important for this are F. L. Cross, The Study of St. Athanasius (Oxford 1945); G. Muller, Lexicon Athanasianum (Berlin 1944-52); other literature in Altaner-Stuiber (71966), 271-279- Creed and canons of Nicaea: DThC 11, 339-416; J. Alberigo, Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Decreta (Freiburg-Rome 1962), 1-15; new critical edition by G. L. Dossetti, 11 simbolo di Nicea e Costantinopoli (Rome 1967).×On the text of the creed: I. Ortiz de Urbina, El simbolo niceno (Madrid 1947); J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds (London, 2nd. ed. I960), 205-262.×On the lists of conciliar participants: E. Schwartz, Uber die Bischofslisten der Synoden von Chalkedon, Nikaia und Konstantinopel (Munich 1937); E. Honigmann: Byz(B) 11 (1936), 429-449, 14 (1939), 65-76, 16 (1942-43), 22-28, 20 (1950), 63-71.

I. Ortiz de Urbina, "La poiitica de Costantino nella controversia ariana," Studi bizantini e neoellenici V (Rome 1939), 284-298; G. Bardy, "L'Occident et les documents de la controverse arienne," RSR 20 (1940), 28-63; J. de Ghellinck, "En marge des con troverses ariennes," Misc. hist. A. De Meyer I (Louvain 1946), 159-180; W. Schneemelcher, "Zur Chronologie des arianischen Streites," ThLZ 79 (1954), 393- 400; V. C. de Clercq, Ossius of Cordoba (Washington 1954); E. Boularand, "Les debuts d'Anus," BLE 65 (1964), 175-203-

 

ON THE COUNCIL OF NICAEA: M. Goemans, Het algemeen Concilie in de vierde eeuw (Nijmegen 1945); Le Concile et les Conciles (Paris I960), with the essays by H. Marot, P.-Th. Camelot, Y. M.-J. Congar; I. Ortiz de Urbina, Nicee et Constantinople (Paris 1963). ×On Athanasius: G. Bardy, S. Athanase (Paris 1925); E. Schwartz, Zur Ge schichte des Athanasius = Ges. Sehr. III (Berlin 1959); id., Zur Kirchengeschichte des 4. Jahrhunderts = Ges. Sehr. IV (Berlin I960), 1-110; D. Ritsehl, Athanasius, Versuch einer Interpretation (Zurich 1964).

 

ON THE THEOLOGICAL QUESTION: W. Elliger, "Bemerkungen zur Theologie des Arius," ThStK 103 (1931), 224-251; H. Berkhof, Die Theologie des Eusebius von Caesarea (Amsterdam 1939); W. Schneemelcher, "Athanasius von AI. als Theologe und Kir chenpolitiker," ZNW, 43 (1950), 242-256; H. Kraft, ""O/ioovo-ioc," ZKG 66 (1954), 1-24; G. Kretschmar,Studien zur fruhchristlichen Trinitatstheologie (Tubingen 1956); C. Andresen, "Zur Entstehung des trinitarischen PersonbegrifFes," ZNW 52 (1961), 1-39; W. Marcus, Der Subordinationismus als historiologisches Problem (Munich 1963); P. Ger- litz, Ausserchristliche Einflusse auf die Entwicklung des christlichen Trinitatsdogmas, zu gleich ein religions-und dogmengeschichtlicher Versuch zur Erklarung der Herkunft des Homousios (Leiden 1963); H. Vogel, Das nikanische Glaubensbekenntnis. Eine Doxologie (Berlin 1963); A. Weber, 'ApxV- Ein Beitrag zur Christologie des Eusebios von Casarea (Rome 1964); A. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition. From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon (451) (London 1965), enlarged new edition of: Die theologische und sprachliche Vorbereitung der christologischen Formel von Chalkedon = Chalkedon I (Wurzburg 1951), 5-202; E. Boularand, L'heresie d'Arius et la "foi" de Nicee (Paris 1972).

 

3- The Struggle over the Council of Nicaea under the Sons of Constantine SOURCES

 

As above for chap. 2; for the Arian Controversy add the Historia acephala in C. H. Turner, Ecclesiae occidentalis monumenta juris antiquissima I 2, 663-671; the collection of documents of Hilary of Poitiers in the Opus historicum, CSEL 65, and his other anti- Arian writings: PL 10. The canons and creeds of synods in E. J. Jonkers, Acta et symbola Conciliorum, quae saeculo IV habita sunt (Leiden 1954). H. Hess, The Canons of the Council of Sardica A. D. 343 (Oxford 1958, with bibliog.). Commentary on the most important documents by P.-P. Joannou, Die Ostkirche und die Cathedra Petri im 4. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart 1972). Decrees of the Emperors in the Codex Theodosianus, ed. Th. Mommsen-P. M. Meyer (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1954); also C. Pharr, The Theodosian Code (Princeton 1952), and P. R. Coleman-Norton, Roman State and Christian Church I (London 1966). For the history of the Emperors: Ammianus Marcellinus, Res gestae, ed. C. U. Clark (Berlin 1910-15).

 

 

1 SAO

 

LITERATURE

 

J. Moreau, "Constantinus II, Constantius II, Constans," JbAC 2 (1959), 160-184; F. Martroye, "La repression de la magie et le culte des gentils au IVe siecle," Re- vueHistDroit 4 (1930), 669-701; G. Gigli, L'ortodossia, l'arianesimo e la politica di Cos- tanzo II (Rome 1950); W. Telfer, "Paul of Constantinople," HThR 43 (1950), 31-92; G. H. Williams, "Christology and Church-State Relations in the fourth Century," CH 20 (Chicago 1951) no. 3, 3-33; no. 4, 3-26; J. Fleming, Commentary on the so-called Opus Historicum of Hilary of Poitiers (Diss. Durham 1951); W. Schneemelcher, "Serdica 342," EvTh, Sonderheft 1952, 83-104; M. Fortina, La legislazione dell'imperatore Costante (Novara 1955); K. Kraft, "Die Taten der Kaiser Constans und Constantius II," JbNumismatik und Geldgeschichte 9 (1958), 141-186; P. Galtier, S. Hilaire de Poitiers (Paris I960); M. Simonetti, Studi suitArianesimo (Rome 1965); C. F. A. Borchardt, Hilary of Poitiers' Role in the Arian Struggle ('s-Gravenhage 1966); G. Folliet, "L'epis- copat africain et la crise arienne au IVe siecle," REB 24 (1966), 196-223; M. Meslin, Les Ariens d'Occident 335-430 (Paris 1967); Hilaire et son temps. Actes du Colloque de Poitiers 1968 (Paris 1969); J. Doignon, Hilaire de Poitiers avant l'exil (Paris 1971).

 

4. The Attempted Restoration of Paganism by the Emperor Julian (361-363)

 

BID.

 

SOURCES

 

Iuliani imperatoris opera, ed. F. C. Hertlein, 2 vols. (Leipzig 1875-76); luliani im- peratoris librorum Contra Christianos quae supersunt, ed. C. J. Neumann (Leipzig 1880); luliani imp. Epistulae, leges, poemata, fragmenta, ed. J. Bidez-F. Cumont (Paris 1922). Julian's works with English translation by W. C. Wright, 3 vols. (London 1913-23). New edition with French translation by J. Bidez-G. Rochefort-Chr. Lacombrade, I/II (Paris 1924-64). Julian's letters, Greek-German, ed. B. Weis (Munich 1973). Am- mianus Marcellinus, Res gestae, ed. C. U. Clark (Leipzig 1910-15, reprint ed. 1963). Zosimus, Historia nova, ed. L. Mendelssohn (Leipzig 1887, reprint ed. 1963).

 

LITERATURE

 

L

 

Surveys in Pauly-Wissowa 10, 26-91, and DACL 8, 305-399. Also: J. Bidez, La vie de l'empereur Julien (Paris 1930); P. de Labriolle, La reaction paienne (Paris 1934), 369-436; R. Andreotti, 11 regno dell'imperatore Giuliano (Bologna 1936); J. Vogt, Kaiser Julian und das Judentum (Leipzig 1939); H. Janssen, Kaiser Julians Herrscherideal (Diss. Kiel 1953); G. Ricciotti, L'imperatore Giuliano secondo i documenti (Milan 1956); G. Gigli, Giuliano I'apostata (Rome I960); J. Leipoldt, Der romische Kaiser Julian in der Religionsgeschichte (Berlin 1964); P.-M. Camus, Ammien Marcellin (Paris 1967); H. Gartner, Einige Uber legungen zur kaiserzeitlichen Panegyrik und zu Ammians Charakteristik des Kaisers Julian (Mainz 1968); Benoist-Mechin, L'empereur Julien ou le reve calcine (Paris 1969).

 

5. Collapse of Arianism and Definitive Recovery of the Nicene Theology at the Council of Constantinople (381)

 

77A

SOURCES

 

As for chaps. 3 and 4. To the writings of Athanasius and Hilary, add those of the Young Nicenes: Basil of Caesarea in PG 29-32; De Spiritu Sancto, trans. B. Pruche, SChr 17 (Paris 1947); In Hexaemeron, ed. S. Giet, SChr 26 (Paris 1949); Epistulae, ed. Y. Cour- tonne, I×III (Paris 1957-67). Gregory Nazianzen in PG 35-38; the five theological discourses, with translation and commentary by J. Barbel (Dusseldorf 1963); Epistulae, ed. P. Gallay, I×II (Paris 1964-1967). Gregory of Nyssa in PG 44-46, superseded by the edition of W. Jaeger-H. Langerbeck et al., vol. I-IX (Leiden 1921-67). Didymus the Blind, De Spiritu Sancto, in the translation by Jerome, PG 39. Epiphanius von Salamis, ed. K. Holl, GCS 25, 31, 37 (Leipzig 1915-33). On the Latin side: Ambrose, De fide ad Gratianum, De Spiritu Sancto, De incarnationis dominicae sacramento, ed. O. Faller, CSEL 78-79 (Vienna 1962-64); the letters in PL 16: discourses ibid, and in part in CSEL 73, ed. O. Faller (Vienna 1955). Acts of the Synod of Aquileia in PL 16, 916-955. The creed of Constantinople in G. L. Dossetti, II simbolo di Nicea e di Costan- tinopoli (Rome 1967), 243-251.

 

LITERATURE

 

For the political history of the time, O. Seeck, Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt 5 (Stuttgart, 2nd ed. 1920); E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire I (Paris 1959); G. Gigli, Ii regno dell'Imperatore Graziano (Rome 1963).×F. Cavallera, Le schisme d'Antioche (Paris 1905); S. Gonzalez, La formula fj.ia obcria×rpel? wiroracreis en S. Gregorio de Nisa (Rome 1939); B. Schewe, Basilius d. Gr. als Theologe (Diss. Nijmegen 1943); W. Ens slin, Die Religionspolitik des Kaisers Theodosius d. Gr. (Munich 1953); J. Plagnieux, S. Gregoire de Nazianze, theologien (Paris 1951); J. Lebon, "Le sort du 'consubstantiel' niceen," RHE AI (1952), 485-529, 48 (1953), 632-682 (Athanasius and Basil); G. L Prestige, St. Basil the Great and Apollinaris of Laodicaea (London 1956); H. Dorries, De Spiritu Sancto. Der Beitrag des Basilius zum Abschluss des trinitarischen Dogmas (Got tingen 1956); L. Hermann, "Ambrosius als Trinitatstheologe," ZKG 69 (1958), 195- 218; W. Seibel, Fleisch und Geist beim hl. Ambrosius (Munich 1958); E. Staimer, Die Schrift "De Spiritu Sancto" von Didymus dem Blinden von Alexandrien (Diss. Munich I960); L. Beranger, Etudes sur la christologie du "De trinitate" attribue a Didyme l'Aveugle (Diss. Lyon I960); N. Q. King, The Emperor Theodosius and the Establishment of Chris tianity (London 1961); I. Ortiz de Urbina, Nizaa and Konstantinopel (Mainz 1964); A.-M. Ritter, Das Konzil von Konstantinopel und sein Symbol (Gottingen 1965); C. F. A. Borchardt, Hilary of Poitiers' Role in the Arian Struggle ('s-Gravenhage 1966); W. Jaeger, Gregor von Nyssas Lehre vom Heiligen Geist (Leiden 1966); J. Coman, "La demonstration dans le traite Sur le Saint Esprit de s. Basile le Grand," Stpatr 9 (Berlin 1966), 172-209-

 

6. Development of the Relationship of Church and State in the Fourth Century: The "Church of the Empire"

 

SOURCES

 

The most important texts on the Church's side in H. Rahner, Kirche und Staat im fruhen Christentum (Munich 1961), 75-201 (with translation and introduction); the decrees of the Emperors in P. R. Coleman-Norton, Roman State and Christian Church I (London 1966). The original texts in the Codex Theodosianus and Justinianus.

 

LITERATURE

 

Besides the works cited in Vol. I, chap. 31, by Voigt, Berkof, Greenslade, Brisson, and Aland: H. v. Campeahausen, Ambrosius von Mailand als Kirchenpolitiker (Berlin 1929); M. Vogelstein, Kaiseridee-Romidee. Das Verhaltnis von Kirche und Staat seit Konstantin (Breslau 1930); K. F. Hagel, Kirche und Kaisertum in Leben und Lehre des Athanasius (Diss. Tubingen 1933); I. -R. Palanque, S. Ambroise et l'empire Romain (Paris 1933); E. Peterson, "Der Monotheismus als politisches Problem," Theologische Traktate (Munich 1951), 45-147; H. Lietzmann, Das Problem Staat und Kirche im westromischen Reich (Berlin 1940); K. M. Setton, Christian Attitude towards the Emperor in the Fourth Cen tury (New York 1941); G. F. Reilly, Imperium and Sacerdotium according to St. Basil (Washington 1945); J. Stratmann, Die Heiligen und der Staat (Frankfurt 1950); W. Ensslin, Die Religionspolitik Theodosius' d. Gr. (Munich 1953); A. Strobel, Schriftverstandnis und Obrigkeitsdenken in der altesten Kirche (Diss. Erlangen 1956); A. A. Ehrhardt, Politische Metaphysik von Solon bis Augustin II (Tubingen 1959); K. Aland, "Kaiser und Kirche von Konstantin bis Byzanz," Kirchengeschichtliche Entwurfe (Gutersloh I960), 257-279; J¶ Gaudemet, L'Eglise dans l'empire Romain, IV'-V siecles (Paris 1959); D. S. Wallace-Hadrill, Eusebius of Caesarea (London I960); N. G. King, The Emperor Theodosius and the Establishment of Christianity (London 1961); G. Pilati, Chiesa e Stato nei primi quindici secoli (Rome 1961); C. Morino, Chiesa e Stato nella dottrina di s. Ambrogio (Rome 1963); H. -J. Diesner, Kirche und Staat im spatromischen Reich (Berlin 1963); R. Hernegger, Macht ohne Auftrag. Die Entstehung der Staats-und Volkskirche (Freiburg 1963); H. Nordberg, Athanasius and the Emperor (Helsinki 1963); E. L. Grasmuck, Coercitio. Staat und Kirche im Donatistenstreit (Bonn 1964); K. F. Morrison, Rome and the City of God. A n Essay on the Constitutional Relationships of Empire and Church in the Fourth Century (Philadelphia 1964); R. Farina, L'impero e I'imperatore cristiano in Eusebio di Cesarea. La prima teologia politica del cristianesimo (Zurich 1966, with bibliog., 329-347); A. Lippold, Theodosius der Gr. und seine Zeit (Stuttgart 1968); A. W. Ziegler, Religion, Kirche und Staat in Geschichte und Gegenwart I (Munich 1969), 124-162; F. Winkelmann, "Probleme der Herausbildung der Staatskirche im romischen Reich des IV. Jahrhunderts," Klio 53 (1971), 281-299; M. Azkoul, "Sacerdotium and Imperium," ThSt 32 (1971), 431-464.

Part Two

 

The Theological Disputes in East and West to the Middle of the fifth Century

 

7. Christology to the Council of Ephesus (431) SOURCES

 

The Church historians Socrates and Evagrius; E Diekamp, Doctrina patrum de incarnatione Verbi (Miinster 1907); H. Lietzmann, Apollinaris von Laodicea und seine Schule (Tiibingen 1904), 167-270, 273-322; J. Flemming-H. Lietzmann, Apol linaristische Schriften (Syriac) = AGG 7, 4 (Berlin 1904). ×Diodoius of Tarsus: R. Abramowski: ZNW 42 (1949), 19-49; M. Briere, "Fragments syriaques de Diodore de Tarse," ROC 10 (1946), 231-282. ×Theodore of Mopsuestia: commentary on the Psalms, ed. R. Devreesse: SteT 93 (Rome 1939); commentary on John (a) Syriac, ed. I. M. Voste: CSCO 115-116 (Louvain 1940); (b) Greek, ed. R. Devreese, "Essai sur Theodore de Mopsueste," SteT 141 (Rome 1948), 305-419; fragments of the commen tary on the great Pauline Epistles in K. Staab, Pauluskommentare aus der griech. Kirche (Munster 1933), 113-212; the catechetical homiles, ed. R. Tonneau: SteT 145 (Rome 1948). ×Cyril of Alexandria: the dogmatic works in PG 75-76 and P. B. Pusey, S. Cyrilli Alex. Epist. oecum. contra Nestorium; De recta fide, 2 vols (Oxford 1875-77); letters in E. Schwartz: ACO I, 1-5 (Berlin 1927-30); De incarnatione Unigeniti; Quod unus sit Christus, ed. G. M. de Durand, SChr 97 (Paris 1964). ×Nestorius: fragments in F. Loofs, Nestoriana (Halle 1905), in part also in E. Schwartz: ACO; P. Bedjan, Le livre d'Heraclide de Damas (Paris 1910); also L. Abramowski, "Untersuchungen zum Liber Heraclidis des Nestorius," CSCO 242, Subsidia 22 (Louvain 1963). ×Acts of the Council of Ephesus, ed. E. Schwartz: ACO I, 1-2 (Strasbourg 19l4ff.); also R. Devreesse: RSPhTh 18 (1929), 223-242, 408-431.

 

LITERATURE

 

The textbooks of the history of dogma: Harnack, DG II; Seeberg, II; Tixeront, II×III; Adam, I (Gutersloh 1965); HDG III la (Freiburg 1965). ×R. V. Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies (London 1940); A. Gilg, Weg und Bedeutung der altkirchlichen Christologie (Munich 2nd ed. 1955); A. Gesche, "L'ame humaine de Jesus dans la christologie du IVe siecle," RHE 54 (1959), 385-425; G. L. Prestige, Fathers and Heretics (London 5th ed. 1960); J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines (London, 2nd ed. 1960); H. M. Diepen, Douze dialogues de christologie ancienne (Rome I960); V. Monachino, "II ruolo dei papi nelle grandi controversie cristologiche (399-555)," I papi nella storia (Rome 1961), 57-170; A. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition (London 1965). ×On Apollinaris: C. A. Raven, Apollinarianism (Cambridge 1923); H. de Riedmatten, "La

BlBUUUKArniCS 1U UNl/Kiuunt. V.IUH

 

christologie d'Apoll, de L.," Stpatr 2 (TU 64, Berlin 1957), 208-234; H. A. Wolfson, "Philosophical Implications of Arianism and Apollinarianism," DOP 12 (1958), 3-28. ×On Diodorus of Tarsus: G. Bardy: DSp 3, 986-994; L. Abramowski: DHGE 14, 495-504; R. A. Greer, "The Antiochene Christology of Diodor ofTJThS 17 (1966), 327-341. ×On Theodore of Mopsuestia: E. Amann: DThC 15, 235-279; F. A. Sullivan, The Christology ofTh. o/M. (Rome 1956); L. Abramowski, "Zur Theologie Th.s v. M.," ZKG 72 (1961), 262-293; R. A. Greer, Th. of M. Exegete and Theologian (London 1961); U. Wickert, Studien zu den Pauluskommentaren Th.s v. Ai. als Beitrag zum Verstandnis der Antiochenischen Theologie (Berlin 1962); R. A. Norris, Manhood and Christ. A Study in the Christology of Th. of M. (London 1963). ×On Nestorius: E. Amann: DThC 11, 76-157; A. Grillmeier: ThPh 41 (1966), 401-410; F. Loofs, Ne storius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine (Cambridge 1914); I. Rucker, Das Dogma von der Personlichkeit Christi und das Problem der Haresie des Nestorius (Oxen- brunn 1934); E. Amann, "L'affaire de Nestorius vue de Rome," RevSR 23 (1949), 5-37, 207-244; 24 (1950), 28-52, 235-265; L. I. Scipioni, Ricerche sulla cristologia delLibro di Eraclide di Nestorio (Fribourg 1956); A. Grillmeier, "Das scandalum oecumenicum des Nestorius," Scholastik 36 (1961), 321-356; M. V. Anastos, "Nestorius Was Orthodox," DOP 16 (1962), 117-140. ×On Cyril of Alexandria: J. van den Dries, The Formula of St. Cyril of Al. Mia <f>v<rt<; tov &eov Koyov trecrapxctifievq (Rome 1939); H. du Manoir, Dogme et spiritualite chez s. Cyrille d'Alexandrie (Paris 1944); J. Liebaert, La doctrine christologique de s. Cyrille d'Alexandrie avant la querelle nestorienne (D'Ile 1951); L M. Armendariz, El nuevo Moises. Dindmica cristocentrica en la tipologia de Cirilo de Al. (Ma drid 1962); P. Galtier, Chalkedon 2 345-387; G. M. de Durand: SChr 97 (Paris 1964), 81-150. ×On the Council of Ephesus: A. d'Ales, Le dogme d'Ephese (Paris 1931); P. -Th. Camelot, Ephesus und Chalkedon (Mainz 1963).

 

8. From Ephesus to Chalcedon SOURCES

 

As for chap. 7; also: J. Flemming, Die Akten des Ephesinischen Konzils vom Jahre 449 (Gottingen 1917); acts of the Council of Chalcedon in ACO II/1-6 (Berlin 1933-38), in them (II/5) Liberatus, Breviarium causae Nestorianorum et Eutychianistarum; Gesta de nomine Acacii vel Breviculum historiae Eutychianistarum in CSEL 35, 440-453. The works of Theodoret of Cyrrhue in PG, 75-76; 83; the Expositio fidei in J. C. Otto, Corpus apologetarum 4 (Jena 3rd ed. 1880, reprint ed. Wiesbaden 1969); letters of Theodoret, ed. Y. Azema: SChr 44, 98, 111 (Paris 1955-65). Separate edition of the pertinent letters of Leo the Great, Tomus ad Flavianum; Contra Eutychis haeresim, ed. C. Silva-Tarouca, Text us et Docum. 9, 15, 20 (Rome 1932, 1934, 1935), otherwise, ACO II 1-4 (Liste II 4, 17Of.).

 

LITERATURE

 

As for chap. 7; also: M. Richard, "Notes sur l'evolution doctrinale de Theodoret," RSPhTh 25 (1936), 459-481; C. da Mazzarino, La dottrina di Teodoreto di Ciro sull'un- ione ipostatica (Rome 1941); H. Dorries, "Hypostasis. Wort- und Bedeutungsge- schichte,"NAG phil. -hist. Kl. 3 (1955), 35-92; L. Abramowski, "Der Streit um Diodor und Theodor zwischen den beiden ephesinischen Konzilien," ZKG 67 (1955-56), 252-287×M. Jugie, "Eutyches et Eutychianisme," DThC 5, 1582-1609; id., "Monophysisme," ibid., 10, 2217-2306; E. Schwartz, Der Prozess des Eutyches (SAM 5,

 

Munich 1929); R. Draguet, "La christologie d'Eutyches d'apres les actes du synode de Flavien (448)," Byz(B) 6 ( 1931), 441-457; M. J. Nicolas, "La doctrine christologique de saint Leon le Grand," RTbom 51(1951), 609-660; Th. Sagi-Bunic, Deus perfectus et homo perfectus, a concilio Ephesino (a. 43 l)ad Chalcedonense (a. 451) (Rome 1965). ×R. Sellers, The Council of Chalcedon (London 1953); A. Grillmeier-H. Bacht, Das Konzil von Chalkedon I×III (Wurzburg 2nd ed. I960), here III, 828-865 bibliog. by A. Schon- metzer; K. Sarkissian, The Council of Chalcedon and the Armenian Church (London 1965); W. H. C. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (Cambridge 1972).

 

9. The Ortgenist Controversy at the Turn of the Fourth and Fifth Centuries SOURCES

 

Epiphanius Salam., Ancoratus 13; Panarion 63, 1-72, 9; Ep. ad Joh. Hierosol. = Jerome, Ep. 51. Rufinus, De adulteratione librorum Origenis; Apologia ad Anastasium; Apologia contra Hieronymum; the prologues to his translations of Origen in CChr 20 (1961), ed. M. Simonetti; the Apologia also separately (Alba 1957). Jerome, Apologia adversus libros Rufini; Contra Joh. Hierosolymitanum in PL 23, 371-514; the letters, CSEL 54-56. Anastasius papa, Ep. ad Joh. Hieros; Ep. ad Simplicianum in PL 20, 68-76.

 

LITERATURE

 

G. Fritz: DThC 11, 1565-1588; A. d'Ales: DAp 3, 1228-1258; G. Grutzmacher, Hieronymus 3 (Berlin 1908) 1-94; K. Holl-A. Julicher, "Die Zeitfolge des ersten origenistischen Streites," in K. Holl, Ges. Aufs. 2 (Tubingen 1928), 310-350; F. Cavell- era, Saint Jerome I (Paris 1922), 193-288; II, 31-46, 115-126; M. Villain, "Rufin d'Aquilee. La querelle autour d'Origene," RSR 27 (1937), 5-37, 165-197; F. X. Mur phy, Rufinus of Aquileia (Washington 1945); B. Th. Stauridis, "AI 'ilpiyevtcmxal e'ptoec," &eoKoyia 28 (1957), 550-577.

 

10. The Priscillianist Movement SOURCES

 

Survey in B. Vollmann, Studien zum Priszillianismus (St. Ottilien 1965), 52-83. The most important: Priscilliani quae supersunt, ed. G. Schepss, CSEL 18 (Vienna 1889); also G. Morin, "Pro Instantio," RBen 30 (1930), 153-173; and J. Martin: HJ 41 (1927), 237-251. Orosius, Commonitorium de errore Priscillianistarum = CSEL 18, 151-157. Sulpicius Severus, Chronica 2, 46-51; Dialogus 3, 11-13 {CSEL 1, 99-105, 208-211). Canons of the Spanish synods in J. Vives, Concilios Visigoticos y Hispa no-Roma nos (Barcelona-Madrid 1963).

 

LITERATURE

 

Comprehensive listing to 1965 in B. Vollmann, op. cit., xii-xxiv. G. Bardy: DThC 13, 391-400; E. Ch. Babut, Priscillien et le Priscillianisme (Paris 1909); J. A. Davids, De Orosio et s. Augustino Priscillianistarum adversariis commentatio historica et philologica (Hagae Comitis 1930); A. d'Ales, Priscillien et l'Espagne chretienne (Paris 1936); M. Martin, Correntes da Filosofa religiosa em Braga des IV a Vis. (Porto 1950); J. M. Ramos y Losertales, Prisciliano. Gesta rerum (Salamanca 1952); J. Madoz, "Arrianismo y Pris- cilianismo en Galicia," Bracara Augusta 8 (1957), 68-87; W. Schatz, Studien zur Ge schichte und Vorstellungswelt des fruhen abendlandischen Monchtums (typed diss. Freiburg i. Br. 1957), 98-259; A. Barbero de Aguilera, "El priscilianismo; ?herejia o movimiento social?," Cuadernos de historia de Espana 37-8 (1963), 5-41; P. Stockmeier, "Das Schwert im Dienst der Kirche. Zur Hinrichtung Priszillians in Trier," Festschr. AI. Thomas (Trier 1967), 415-42S; J. L. Orella, "La penitencia en Prisciliano (340-385)," HS 21 (1968), 21-56.

 

11. The Struggle with Donatism SOURCES

 

H. v. Soden, Urkunden zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Donatismus, KIT 122 (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1950). For the rest of the Donatist literature: P. Monceaux, Histoire litteraire de l'Afrique chretienne V (Paris 1920). Optatus of Mileve, De schismate Donatistarum, ed. C. Ziwsa: CSEL 26 (Vienna 1893). The anti-Donatist works of Augustine, ed. M. Petschenig: CSEL 51-53 (Vienna 1908-10), and in the Bibliotheque Augustinienne, vols. 28, 29, 32 (Paris 1963-66). On the chronology of these works and of the pertinent letters and sermons of Augustine: P. Monceaux, op. cit., 7 (1923), 275-292. Gesta collationis Carthaginiensis in PL 11, 1231-1418, Mansi IV, 19-245, ed. S. Lancel, Sehr. 194-197 (Paris 1972ff.). Archeological material in H. Leclercq, "Donatisme," DACL 4, 1457-1505; P. Courcelle: M AH 53 (1936), 166-197; and A. Berthier et al., Les vestiges du christianisme antique dans la Numidie centrale (Algiers 1942).

 

LITERATURE

 

A) ON DONATISM IN GENERAL: E. Altendorf, Einheit und Heiligkeit der Kirche (Berlin 1932); W. H. C. Frend, The Donatist Church (London, 2nd ed. 1971); S. L. Greenslade, Schism in the Early Church (London 1953); Ch. Courtois, Les Vandales ? Afrique (Paris 1955); J. B. Brisson, Autonomisme et christianisme dans l'Afrique romaine (Paris 1958); also important A. Mandouze, "Encore le Donatisme," Antiquite classique 29 (I960), 61-107; Th. Biittner-E. Werner, Circumcellionen und Adamiten (Berlin 1959); H. -J. Diesner, Kirche und Staat im spatromischen Reich (Berlin 1963); E. Tengstrom, Donatisten und Katholiken (Stockholm 1964); E. Grasmiick, Coercitio. Staat und Kirche im Donati- stenstreit (Bonn 1965).

 

B) ON AUGUSTINE AND THE DONATISTS: Surveys in C. Andresen, Bibliographia Augustiniana (Darmstadt 1962); T. van Bavel, Repertoire bibliographique de saint Augus tin 1950-1960 (Steenbrugge 1963); E. Lamirande, "Un siecle et demi d'etudes sur l'ecclesiologie de saint Augustin. Essai bibliographique," RevEAug 8 (1962), 1- 125.×Basic are: P. Monceaux, Histoire litteraire de l'Afrique chretienne IV-VII (Paris 1920-23); P. Batiffol, Le catholicisme de saint Augustin (Paris, 4th ed. 1929); G. G. Willis, S. Augustine and the Donatist Controversy (London 1950); J. Ratzinger, Volk und Haus Gottes in Augustins Lehre von der Kirche (Munich 1954); the essays in Augustinus Magister II (Paris 1954), 835-914; St. J. Grabowsky, The Church. An Introduction to tb¿ Theology of Saint Augustine (St. Louis 1957); E. Lamirande, L'eglise celeste sehn saint Augustin (Paris 1963); G. Bonner, St. Augustine of Hippo (London 1963), 237-311; R~

 

lu liNUX VIJLJUAJL CHAPTERS

 

Crespin, Ministere et saintete. Pastorale du clerge et solution de la crise donatiste dans la vie et la doctrine de saint Augustin (Paris 1965); H. B. Weijland, Augustinus en de kerkelijke tucht (Kampen 1965); P. Brown, Augustine of Hippo (London 1967), 212-243; A. Mandouze, Saint Augustin (Paris 1968), 331-411; O. Perler, Les voyages de s. Augustin (Paris 1969); E. Lamirande, La situation ecclesiologique des Donatistes d'apres s. Augustin (Ottawa 1972); on the conference of 411: S. Lancel: Sehr. 194, 9-287.

 

12. Pelagius and the Aftermath SOURCES

 

A. Bruckner, Quellen zur Gesch. des pelagianischen Streites (Tubingen 1906). Survey of the extant Pelagian literature by J. Morris: JThS n.s. 16 (1965), 26-60. Catalogue of the genuine and disputed writings of Pelagius by A. Hamman: PL Suppl. 1, 1101-1109.× Pelagius, Expositiones in epistulas Sancti Pauli, ed. A. Souter, TSt 9, 1-3 (Cambridge 1922, 1926, 1931); its text: PL Suppl. 1, 1110-1374; Libellus fidei ad Innoc. in PL 45, 1716-1718; Epis tula ad Demetriadem, ibid., 30, 15-46. Basic for the question of authen ticity, G. de Plinval, Pelage, ses ecrits, sa vie et sa reforme (Lausanne 1943); id., Essai sur le style et la langue de Pelage (Fribourg 1947); id., REL 29 (1951), 284-294; R. F. Evans, Pour Letters of Pelagius (London 1968).×-Julian of Aeclanum, Commentarius in prophetas minores tres: PL 21, 950-1104; Expositio librijob: PL Suppl. I, 1573-1679.

 

THE ANTI-PELAGIAN AUTHORS: Jerome, Dialogi contra Pelagianos: PL 23, 495-590; Ep. 133: CSEL 56, 241-260; Orosius, Liber apologeticus contra Pelagianos: CSEL 5, 603-664; Marius Mercator, Commonitorium and Super nomine Caelestii: ACO I 5, 5-23, 65-70; Augustine: CSEL 42 and 60, rec. C. F. Vrba and I. Zycha (Vienna 1902,1912); PL 44-45; S. Kopp-A. Zumkeller, Aurel. Augustinus, Schriften gegen die Semipelagianer (Wurzburg 1955); A. Zumkeller, Augustinus, Schriften gegen die Pelagianer I×II (Wurzburg 1964-71). In the Bibliotheque Augustinienne there has so far appeared Vol. 24 (Paris 1962: writings against the Semipelagians) by J. Chene and J. Pintard; and Vol. 21 (Paris 1966: De natura et gratia; De perf. justit. hom.; De gestis Pelagii) by G. de Plinval and J. de la Tullaye. A useful compendium of Augustinian texts (with French translation) on the doctrine of grace by J. Chene, La theologie de s. Augustin. Grace et predestination (Le Puy-Lyon 1962).

 

LITERATURE:

 

ON PELAGIUS: A.-J. Gaudel: DThC 12, 382-406; R. Hedde-E. Amann, "Pelagianisme," ibid., 12, 675-715; E. Dinkier: Pauly-Wissowa 19, 226-242; G. de Plinval (see supra, under Sources); J. Riviere, "Heterodoxie des Pelagiens en fait de redemption," RHE 41 (1946), 5-43; J- Ferguson, Pelagius (Cambridge 1956); T. Bohlin, Die Theologie des Pelagius (Uppsala 1957); S. Prete, Pelagio e il Pelagianismo (Brescia 1961); R. F. Evans, Pelagius (London 1968); P. Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of St. Augustine (London 1972), 183-226.

 

ON JULIAN OF AECLANUM: A. Hamman: PL Suppl. 1, 1571-1572; G. Bouwman, Des Julian von Aeclanum Kommentar zu den Propheten Osee,Joel und Amos (Rome 1958); R. Refoule, "Julien d'Eclane, theologien et philosophe," RSR 52 (1964), 42-84, 233-247.

 

ON AUGUSTINE: The sections in the Augustine bibliography of C. Anderson and T. Bavel (see chap. 11) and in Bibliotheque August. 24 (1962), 29-38; 21 (1966) 19-23; N.

 

Merlin, S. Augustin et les dogmes du peche originel et de la grace (Paris 1931); Y. de Montcheuil, "La polemique de s. Augustin contre Julien d'Eclane," RSR 44 (1956), 191-218; A. Guzzo, Agostino contro Pelagio (Turin 1958); H. Ulbrich, "Augustins Briefe zum pelagianischen Streit" (typed diss., Gottingen 1958), partial printing: RevEAug 9 (1963), 51-75, 235-258; J. Gross, Entstehungsgeschichte des Erbsundendogmas I (Basel I960); J. Chene, "Les origines de la controverse semi-pelagienne," ATh 13 (1953), 56-109; RSR 43 (1955), 321-341; N. K. Chadwick, Poetry and Utters in Early Christian Gaul (London 1955), 170-239; F. J. Thonnard, "La predestination augustinienne et l'interpretation de O. Rottmanner," RevEAug 9 (1963), 259-287; id., "La predestination augustinienne, sa place en philosophie augustinienne," ibid., 10 (1964), 97-239; M. Huftier, Le tragique de la condition chretienne chez s. Augustin (Paris 1964); id., Libre arbitre, liberte et peche chez J. Augustin (Louvain 1968); J. M. List, "Augustine on Free Will and Predestination,"/TW NS 20 (1969), 420-447. The corresponding chapters in the books on Augustine (see chap. 7) by G. Bonner (317-393), P. Brown (340-407), and A. Mandouze (391-453); E. TeSelle, Augustine the Theologian (London 1970); G. bonnet, Augustine and Modern Research on Pelagianism (Villanova 1972).

Part Three

 

Inner Life of the Church Between Nicaea and

 

Chalcedon

 

13. Missionary Activity of the Church

 

Sections One and Two

 

LITERATURE

 

Most important bibliog. in A. Seumois, "La mission chez les Peres," Spiritus 5 (1964), 215-219, and in K. Baus, "Erwagungen zu einer kunftigen 'Geschichte der christlichen Mission in der Spatantike' (4.-6. Jh.)," Reformata Reformanda, Festgabe f. H. Jedirt (Munster 1965), 22-38. There is no reliable complete presentation of the history of the missions in this period, even in the special works by J. Schmidlin (Steyl 1925); S. Delacroix, Histoire des Missions catholiques I (Paris 1956); A. Mulders, Missiegeschiedenis (Bussum 1957). W. H. C. Frend, "The Missions of the Early Church 180-700 A.D.," MiscHistEccl III (Louvain 1970), 3-23, takes up only individual questions. First sketch by B. Kotting, "Christentum" in RAC II (1954) 1138-1159. Important are the respec tive articles on various countries in RAC. Also K. S. Latourette, A History of the Expan sion of Christianity I (New York 1937), 171-369, and the pertinent sections in Fliche- Martin III (1926), 216-224, 489-504; IV (1937) 321-336, 497-534 (hitherto the most reliable presentation). The literature on the evangelization of individual pro vinces and countries is mentioned in the notes.

 

ON THE QUESTION OF MISSIONARY METHOD: A. D. Nock, Conversion (Oxford 1933); G. Bardy, La conversion au christianisme durant les premiers siecles (Paris 1949); K. Aland, Uber den Glaubenswechsel in der Geschichte des Christentums (Berlin 1961); Chr. Mohrmann, "Das Sprachproblem in der fruhchristlichen Mission," ZMR 38 (1954), 103-111; J. Lecuyer, "Aspects missionnaires de l'initiation selon les Peres de l'eglise," NZM 15 (1959), 1-13; E. Lamirande, Pentecote et mission chez les Peres de l'eglise (Paris 1964); P. P. Joannou, La legislation imperiale et la christianisation de l'empire, 311-476 (Rome 1972).

 

Section Three

 

LITERATURE

GENERAL HISTORY: E. Stein, Gesch. des spatromischen Meiches I (Vienna 1928, Paris 2nd ed. 1959); id., Histoire du Bas Empire II (Paris-Brussels 1949); L. Schmidt, Gesch. der deutschen Stamme bis zum Ausgang der Volkerwanderungszeit, I: Die Ostgermanen (Munich, 2nd ed. 1941); id., Gesch. der Wandalen (Munich 1942); Ch. Courtois, Les Vandales et iAfrique (Paris 1955); Chr. Sevin, Die Gepiden (Munich 1955); "I Goti in Occidente," Settimane di studio ... III (Spoleto 1956); H. Rosenfeld, Ostgoten und Westgoten: Die Welt als Geschichte 17 (1957), 245-258.

 

GERMANIC RELIGION: W. Baetke, Art und Glaube der Germanen (Hamburg, 2nd ed. 1934); V. Grunbech, Kultur und Religion der Germanen, 2 vols. (Hamburg, 5th ed. 1954); J. de Vries, Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, 2 vols. (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1956-57).

 

GENERAL HISTORY OF CONVERSION AND OF THE CHURCH: H. v. Schubert, Gesch. der christlichen Kirche im Fruhmittelalter (Tubingen 1921); K. D. Schmidt, Die Bekehrung der Germanen zum Christentum, I: Der ostgermanische Arianismus (Gottingen 1939); II: Die katholische Mission bei den Westgermanen (Gottingen n.d. [1942}); G. Haendler, Gesch. des Fruhmittelalters und der Germanenmission: Die Kirche in ihrer Geschichte. Ein Hdb., ed. K. D. Schmidt and E. Wolf, II (Gottingen 1961). Especially to be consulted is the detailed criticism of the literature appearing up to 1959 by G. Haendler, op. cit.×-J. Zeiller, Les origines chretiennes dans les provinces danubiennes de l'empire (Paris 1918); A. D. Momigliano, Paganism and Christianity in the4th Century (Oxford 1963); in it, E. A. Thompson, "Christianity and the Northern Barbarians"; "La conversione al cris- tianesimo nell'Europa dell'Alto Medio Evo," Settimane di studio del Centr XIV (Spoleto 1967); in it, inter alia, R. Manselli, "La conversione dei popoli germanici al cris- tianesimo. La discussione storiografica."

 

BASIC IDEAS OF THE MISSION: S. Delacroix, Histoire universelle des missions catholiques I (Paris 1956); A. V. Seumois, La papaute et les missions au cours des six premiers siecles (Paris-Louvain 1951); E Paschoud, Roma aeterna. Etudes sur le patriotisme romain dans l'Occident latin a l'epoque des grandes invasions (Zurich 1967); W. H. Fritze, "Universalis gentium confessio," Fruhmittelalterliche Studien 3 (1969), 78-130; there also other liter ature.

 

CONVERSION OF THE GOTHS: P. G. Scardigli, "La conversione dei Goti al cris- tianesimo," Settimane di studio . . . XIV (Spoleto 1967), 47-86; E. A. Thompson, "The Date of the Conversion of the Visigoths," JEH 1 (1956), 1-11; id., "Early Visigothic Christianity," Latomus 21 (1962); id., The Visigoths in the Time ofUlfila (Oxford 1966). Thompson's theses are controverted.

 

GOTHIC BIBLE: Edition: W. Streitberg (Germanische Bibliothek II Bd 3, 1, Heidelberg 1919); F. Kaufmann, "Der Stil der gotischen Bibel," Zs. f. Deutsche Philologie 48 (1920), 7-80, 165-235, 349-388; 49 (1923), 11-57; H. Steubing, "Miscellen zur gotischen Bibelubersetzung des Ullilas," ZKG 64 (1952-53), 137-165; K. Weinhold, Die gotische Sprache im Dienst des Christentums (Halle 1870); P. G. Scardigli, Lingua e storia dei Goti (Florence 1964); A. Mentz," Schrift und Sprache der Burgunder," ZdAdL 85 (1954), 1-17.

 

GERMAN CULTURE AND ARIANISM: O. Dibelius, Die Germanisierung des Christentums (Berlin 1934); H. E. Giesecke, Die Ostgermanen und der Arianismus (Leipzig-Berlin 1939). For the current state of the discussion cf. G. Haendler, op. cit.

 

ARIAN CHURCH ORGANIZATION: H. v. Schubert, Staat und Kirche in den arianischen Konigreichen und im Reiche Chlodwigs (Munich-Berlin 1912); U. Stutz, Die Eigenkirche als Element des mittelalterlich-germanischen Kirchenrechts (1895; reprinted 1957). Other literature in Feine, RG I. Most recent opinion: R. Hoslinger: OAKR 3 (1952), 267ff.

 

For a discussion of the Gothic Arian influence on the Bavarians and Thuringians, cf. G. Haendler, op. cit., 9ff.

 

14. The Building of the Organization of the Church of the Empire LITERATURE

 

GENERAL: J. Gaudemet, L'Eglise dans I'empire romain (Paris 1959); Plochl I; Feine, RG: in these three works are also surveys of the corresponding canonical sources.×W, de Vries, "Die Struktur der Kirche gemass dem Konzil von Chalkedon," OrChrP 35 (1968), 63-122; id., "Die Struktur... von Ephesos," AHC 2 (1970), 22-25; id., "Die Struktur der Kirche gemass dem 1. Konzil von Nidaia," Wegzeichen. Festgabe H. Bieder mann (Wurzburg 1971), 55-81.

SPECIAL: A. Scheuermann, "Diozese," RAC III 1053-1063; P. de Labriolle, "Paroecia," BullDuCange 3 (1927), 196-205; id., RSR 18 (1928), 60-72; K. Muller, "Parochie und Diozese," ZNW 32 (1933), 149-185; S. Mochi Onory, Vescovi e citta (Bologna 1933); H. Leclercq, "Metropole," DACL XL, 786-790; DDC I, 927-934; VI, 872-877; F. Dvornik, The Idea of Apostolicity in Byzantium (Cambridge, Mass. 1958); H. Chadwick; The Circle and the Ellipse. Rival Concepts of Authority in the Early Church (Oxford 1959); E. Lanne, "Eglises locales et patriarcats a l'epoque des grands conciles," Iren ikon 34 (1961), 292-321; W. de Vries, "Die Entstehung der Patriarchate des Ostens und ihr Verhaltnis zur papstlichen Vollgewalt," Scholastik 37 (1962), 341-369; id., "Antiochien und Seleukia-Ktesiphon," Mel. Tisserant (Rome 1964), 429-450; H. Grotz, Die Hauptkirchen des Ostens von den Anfangen bis zum Konzil von Nikaia 325 (Rome 1964); Y. Congar-B. D. Dupuy, Das Bischofsamt und die Weltkirche (Stuttgart 1964); I Patriarcati orientali nel primo millennio (Rome 1968).×N. Jung, "Concile," DDC III 1268-1280; G. Roethe, Zur Geschichte der romischen Synoden im 3. und 4. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart 1937); M. Goemans, Het algemeene concilie in de Vierde eeuw (Nijmegen 1945); G. Kretschmar, "Die Konzile der alten Kirche" in H. J. Marguli, Die okumenischen Konzile der Christenheit (Stuttgart 1961), 75-200; J. Hajjar, Le synode permanent dans l'eglise byzantine des origines au XIe sie'cle (Rome 1962).

15. The Further Development of the. Roman Primacy from Melchiades to Leo I SOURCES

 

Papal Letters: PL 13, 20, 50, 54; most of the letters of Celestine I, Boniface I, Sixtus III, and Leo I in a new edition by E. Schwartz: ACO. Die Briefe uber das Vikariat Thes- salonike, ed. C. Silva-Tarouca, Collectio Thessalonicensis (Rome 1937). L. Duchesne, LP. C. H. Turner, Ecclesiae occidentalis monumenta Iuris antiquissima I, II 3 (Oxford 1930).

 

LITERATURE

 

H. Grisar, Geschichte Roms und der Papste im Mittelalter I (Freiburg 1900), 1-79; J. Chapman, Studies on the Early Papacy (London 1928); P. Batiffol, La paix constantinienne (Paris, 4th ed. 1929); id., Li siege apostolique 359-451 (Paris, 3rd ed. 1924); id., Cathedra Petri (Paris 1938); E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papsttums I (Tubingen 1930); J. Haller, Das

 

Papsttum I (Stuttgart, 2nd ed. 1950); F. X. Seppelt, Geschichte der Papste I (Munich, 2nd ed. 1954); M. Maccarrone, Vicarius Christi. Storia del titolo papale (Rome 1952); H. Marot, "Les conciles romains des IV et V siecles et le developpement de la primaute," Istina 4 (1957), 435-462; J. Meyendorff, "La primaute romaine dans la tradition canonique jusqu'au concile de Chalcedoine," ibid., 463-482; G. Jouassard, "Sur les decisions des conciles generaux des IV et V siecles dans leur rapport avec la primaute," ibid., 485-496; A. Rimoldi, L'apostolo San Pietro fondamento delia chiesa, principe degli apostoli ed ostiario Celeste nella Chiesa primitiva dalle origini al concilio di Calcedonia (Rome 1958); M. Maccarrone, La dottrina delprimato papale dal IV all' VIII secolo nelle relazioni con le chiese occidentali (Spoleto i960); V. Monachino, "Il primato nella controversia ariana," Saggi storici intorno al papato (Rome 1959); id., Il ruolo dei papi nelle grandi controversi cristologiche; Il papato tra Bizantini e Langobardi," I papi nella storia I (Rome 1961), 57-254; id., "Il primato nello scisma donatista, " AHPont 2 (1964), 7-44; C. Falconi, Storia dei papi e del papato I: La nascita del papato nel declino del impero (Rome 1967); M. Maccarrone, San Pietro in rapporta a Cristo nelle piu antiche testimonianze (Rome 1968); W. Marschall, Karthago und Rom. Die Stellung der nordafrikanischen Kir chen zum apostolischen Stuhl in Rom (Stuttgart 1971); P.-P. Joannou, Die Ostkirche und die Cathedra Petri im 4. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart 1972).

 

16. The Clergy of the Church of the Empire LITERATURE

 

GENERAL: Surveys inj. Gaudemet, L'Eglise dans l'Empire romain, IV-V siecles (Paris 1958), 98-185; Plochl I (Vienna, 2nd. ed. I960), 176-189; Feine, RG, 125-145 (lit.); D. Zahringer, Das kirchliche Priestertum nach dem hl. Augustinus (Paderborn 1931); G. Bardy (ed.), Pretres d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (Paris 1954); Etudes sur le sacrement de l'or dre = Lex orandi 22 (Paris 1957); G. Pintard, Le sacerdoce selon I. Augustin (Paris 1960); R. Crespin, Ministere et saintete. Pastorale du clerge et solution de la crise donastiste dans la vie et la doctrine de s. Augustin (Paris ,1965); R. Gryson,Le pretre selon s. Ambroise (Louvain 1968); L. Ott, "Das Weihesakrament. Die nachnizanische Patrisdk," HDG IV 5 (Freiburg 1969), 19-39.

INDIVIDUAL QUESTIONS: M. Andrieu, Les ordres mineurs (Paris 1925); W. Croce, "Die niederen Weihen und ihre hierarchische Wertung," ZKTh 70 (1948), 257-315; "Diakonat," DACL IV, 738-746; RAC III, 888-909; DSAM III, 799-817; J. Blockscha, "Die Altersvorschriften fur die hoheren Weihen im ersten Jahrtausand," AkathKR 111 (1931), 31-83; P.-H. Lafontaine, Les conditions positives de l'accession aux ordres dans la premiere legislation ecclesiastique (Ottawa 1963), 300-492; R. Gryson, Le ministere des femmes dans teglise ancienne (Gembloux 1972). Celibacy:×DACL II, 2802-2832; DSAM II, 385-386; B. Korting, Der Zolibat in der alten Kirche (Munster, 2nd ed. 1970); R. Gryson, Les origines du celibat ecclesiastique (Gembloux 1970); P. Pampaloni, "Continenza e celibato del clero. Legge e motivi nelle fonti canonistiche dei sec. IV e V," Studia Patavina 17 (1970), 5-59; H. Crouzel, "Le celibat dans l'eglise primitive," Sacerdoce et celibat, publ. by J. Coppens et al. (Gembloux 1971), 333× 371.×G. Horle, Fruhmittelalterliche Monchs- und Klerikerbildung in Italien (Freiburg 1914); W. Wuhr, Das abendlandische Bildungswesen im Mittelalter (Munich 1950), 17-45; La formation sacerdotal en la Iglesia (Barcelona 1966).×H. Leclercq, "Immu nite," DACL VII, 323-390; C. Dupont, "Les privileges des clercs sous Constantin,"

RHE 62 (1967), 729-752; G. Vismara, Episcopalis audientia (Milan 1937); W. Selb, "Episcopalis audientia von der Zeit Konstantins bis zur Nov. XXXV Valentianians III," ZSavRGrom 84 (1967), 162-217; Th. Klauser, Der Ursprung der bischoflichen Insignien und Ehrenrechte (Krefeld, 2nd ed. 1953); E. Jerg, Vir venerabilis. Untersuchungen zur Titulatur der Bischofe in den ausserkirchliehen Texten der Spatantike als Beitrag zur Deutung ihrer offentlichen Stellung (Vienna 1970).×Y. Congar (ed.), Das Bischofsamt und die Weltkirche (Stuttgart 1964); J. Lecuyer, Etudes sur la collegialite episcopale (Le Puy- Lyon 1964); La collegialite episcopale. Histoire et theologie = Unam sanctam 52 (Paris 1965); L. Mortari, Consacrazione episcopale e collegialita (Florence 1969).

 

17. The Liturgy SOURCES

 

The most important; F. E. Brightman-C. E. Hammond, Liturgies Eastern and Western I (London 1966, reprint); Monumenta eucharistica et liturgica vetustissima, ed. J. Quasten, FlorPatr VII (Bonn 1935); Cyril of Jerusalem, Catecheses mystagogicae, ed. A. Piedagnol-P. Paris, SChr 126 (Paris 1966); Theodore of Mopsuestia, Homiliae 12-lu, ed. R. Tonneau, SteT 145 (Vatican City 1949); John Chrysostom, Huit Catechises bap tismales, SChr 50 (Paris, 2nd ed. 1970); Ambrose, De mysteriis, Desacramentis, ed. Botte, SChr 25 (Paris, 2nd ed. 1961); Niceta of Remesiana, Instructio ad competentes, ed. Kl. Gamber, Tpatrlit 1 (Regensburg 1964); Kl. Gamber, Weitere Sermonen ad competentes I und II, Tpatrlit 2 and 5 (Regensburg 1065-66). Itinerarium Egeriae, ed. A. Frances- chini-R. Weber,CChr 175 (Turnhout 1958); A. Adam, Zur Geschichte der orientalischen Taufe und Messe im 2. u. 4. Jh., KIT 5 (3rd ed. 1960); J. C. Didier, Le bapteme des enfants dans la tradition de l'Eglise ancienne in Monumenta Christiana selecta (Tournai I960); Ambrose, "De paenitentia," CSEL 73; Pacian, Epistulae et Paraenesis, PL 13; Augustine, Textus selecti de paenitentia, coll. B. Poschmann, FlorPatr 38 (Bonn 1934); Augustine, Sermons pour la Paque, ed. S. Poque, SChr 116 (Paris 1966); Leo I, Sermones de quad- ragesima; de passione Domini, ed. R. Dolle, SChr 49 and 74 (Paris 1957 and 1961).

 

LITERATURE

 

See Vol. I, chap. 23; also: J. A. Jungmann, Gewordene Liturgie (Innsbruck 1941); A. G. Martimort, L'Eglise en priere. Introduction a la liturgie (Paris, 3rd ed. 1965); H. A. Schmidt, lntroductio in liturgiam occidentalem (Rome, 2nd ed. 1965); Th. Klauser, Kleine abendlandische Liturgiegeschichte (Bonn 1965); J. A. Jungmann, Liturgie der christlichen Fruhzeit (Fribourg 1967); E. Cattaneo, Introduzione alla storia liturgica occidentale (Rome 2nd ed. 1969); W. Nage'., Geschichte des christlichen Gottesdienstes (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1970).×S. Salaville, Liturgies orientales (Paris 1932); J. M. Hanssens, Institutions litur- gicae de ritibus orientalibus, vol. II-III (Rome 1932); A. Raes, lntroductio in liturgiam orientalem (Rome 1947); A. Baumstark, Liturgie comparee (Chevtogne, 2nd ed. 1953); H. J. Schulz, Die byzantinische Liturgie (Freiburg 1964).

 

BAPTISM: P. de Puniet, "Bapteme," DACL 2 (1914), 251-346; J. Jeremias, Die Kinder taufe in den ersten vier Jahrhunderten (Gottingen 1958); A. Stenzel, Die Taufe (Innsbruck 1958): J. Ysebaert, Greek Baptismal Terminology, Graecitas christ, primaeva 1 (Nijmegen 1962); Th. M. Finn, The Liturgy of Baptism in the Baptismal Instructions of St. John

BlBUUUKArniDS lu UNUlIluuni.

 

Chrysostom (Washington 1967); G. Kretschmar, "Die Geschichte des Taufgottesdienstes in der alten Kirche," Leiturgia V (Kassel 1970), 145-273.

 

EUCHARIST: J. A. Jungmann, Missarum sollemnia (Vienna, 5th ed. 1962); M. Righetti, La Messa. Commento storico-liturgico (Milan, 3rd ed. 1966); W. Gessel, Eucharistische Gemeinschaft bei Augustinus (Wurzburg 1966); B. Botte et al., Eucharisties d'Orient et d'Occident, Lex orandi 46-47 (Paris 1970).

 

PENANCE: J. A. Jungmann, Die lateinischen Bussriten (Innsbruck 1932); B. Poschmann, Busse = HDF IV 3 (Freiburg 1951); C. Vogel, La discipline penitentielle en Gaule des origines a la fin du VIIe siecle (Paris 1952); P. Galtier, De poenitentia (Rome, 3rd ed. 1956); P. Anciaux, Histoire de la discipline penitentielle (Paris 1963).

 

THE LITURGICAL YEAR: N. M. Denis-Boulet, Le calendrier chretien (Paris 1959); J. Pascher, Das liturgische Jahr (Munich 1963); M. Righetti, L'anno liturgico (Milan, 3rd ed. 1969); Paschatis Sollemnia, Festschr.J. A. Jungmann (Freiburg 1959); M. Merendino, Paschale Sacramentum (Munster 1965); W. Huber, Passa und Ostern. Untersuchungen zur Osterfeier der alten Kirche (Berlin 1969); V. Peri, "La durata e struttura della Quaresima nell'antico uso ecclesiastico gerosolimitano," Aevum 37 (1963), 31-62; G. Kretschman, "Himmelfahrt und Pfingsten," ZKG 66 (1954-55), 209-253; R. Cabie, La Pentecote. L'evolution de la Cinquantaine pascale au cours des cinq premiers siecles (Tournai 1965); B. Botte, Les origines de la Noel et de l'Epiphanie (Louvain 1932); J. Mossy, Les fetes de Noel et de l'Epiphanie d'aprees les sources litteraires cappadociennes du IVe siecle (Louvain 1965); F. Nikolasch, "Zum Ursprung des Epiphaniefestes," ELit 82 (1968), 393-429.

 

18. Preaching and Piety LITERATURE

 

CARE OF SOULS IN GENERAL: G. Dix, "The Ministry in the Early Church" in K. E. Kirk, The Apostolic Ministry (London, 2nd ed. 1947), 183-303; V. Monachino, La cura pastorale a Milano, Cartagine e Roma nel secolo IV (Rome 1947); A. Mandouze, "Notes sur l'organisation de la vie chretienne en Afrique a l'epoque de s. Augustin," AT h 13 (1953), 151-171, 201-231; J. Fernandez Alonso, La cura pastoral en la Espana romano- visigoda (Rome 1955); P. Rentinck, La cura pastoral in Antiochia nel IVe secolo (Rome 1970).×F. Meyer, Die Seelsorge des hl. Ambrosius (Diss. Rome 1941); F. Van der Meer, Augustinus der Seelsorger (Cologne 1951); E. Bellini, "La figura del pastore d'anime in Gregorio Nazianzeno," SC 99 (1971), 269-296.

 

CATECHESIS AND PREACHING: M. Sauvage, Catechese et laicat (Paris 1962); J. Danielou, La catechese aux premiers siecles (Paris 1968).×B. Paredi, La catechesi di Sant' Ambrogio (Genoa 1957); A. Paulin, S. Cyrille de Jerusalem catechete (Paris 1959).×F. Stingeder, Gesch. der Schriftpredigt (Paderborn 1920); H. Kerr, The Preaching in the Early Church (New York 1942); A. Niebergall, "Die Gesch. der christlichen Predigt," Leiturgia II (Kassel 1955), 182-353; St. Czerwik, Homilia paschalis apud Patres usque ad saec. V (Rome 1961); J. B. Schnyder, Gesch. der katholischen Predigt (Freiburg 1969); W. Schutz, Gesch. der christlichen Predigt (Berlin 1972); A. Olivar, "La duracion de la predicacion antiqua," Liturgica 3 (1966), 143-184; id., "Preparacion e improvicasion en la predica patristica," Kyriakon II (Festschr. J. Quasten, Munster 1970), 736-767; D. Attwater, St. John Chrysostom, Pastor and Preacher (London 1959); B. H. Vandenberghe St. Jean Chrysostome et la parole de Dieu (Paris 1961); J. Bernardi, La predication des Peres

 

Cappadociens (Paris 1968); R. R. Ruether, Gregory of Naziartzen, Rhetor and Philosopher (Oxford 1969).

 

AUGUSTINE; M. Pontet, "Le predicateur et son public," L'exegese de s. Augustin pre dicateur (Paris 1945), 35-110; H.-I. Marrou, "L'eloquence chretienne," S. Augustin et la fin de la culture antique (Paris, 2nd ed. 1947), 505-545; J. Pepin, "S. Augustin et la fonction de l'allegorie," Rech Aug 1 (1958), 243-286; J. Oroz Reta, La retorica en los sermones de s. Agustin (Madrid 1963); F. Schnitzler, Zar Theologie der Verkundigung in den Predigten des hl. Augustinus (Freiburg 1968); P. Christophe, Cassien et Cesaire pre dicateurs de la morale monastique (Gembloux 1969).

 

PIETY AND ASCETICISM; M. Viller-K. Rahner, Aszese und Mystik der Vaterzeit (Freiburg 1939); A. Hamman, Prieres des premiers chretiens (Paris 1952); L. Bouyer, The Spirituality of the New Testament and the Fathers (London/New York, 1963); E. Dassmann, Die Frommigkeit des Kirchenvaters Ambrosius von Mailand (Munster 1965); J. A. Jungmann, Christliches Beten im Wandel und Bestand (Munich 1969); E. von Severus-O. Michel-Th. Klauser, "Gebet I/II," RAC 8, 1134-1258; 9, 1-36; J. A. Lamb, The Psalms in Christian Worship (London 1962); J. Schummer, Die altchristliche Fastenpraxis (Munster 1933); A. Guillaume, Jeune et charite dans l'Eglise latine (Paris 1954); Th. Pichler, Das Fasten bei Basileios und im antiken Heidentum (Innsbruck 1955); Th. Camelot, Virgines Christi (Paris 1944); F. de B. Vizmanos, Las virgenes cristianas en la Iglesia primitiva (Madrid 1949).

 

CULT OF MARTYRS, THE SAINTS, AND THE DEAD: H. Delehaye, Sanctus (Brussels 1927); id., Les origines du culte des martyrs (Brussels, 2nd ed. 1933); A. Grabar, Mar tyrium, 3 vols. (Paris 1946); Th. Klauser, Christlicher Martyrerkult, heidnischer Heroen kult, spatjudische Heiligenverehrung (Cologne I960); A. Frolow, La relique de la vraie Croix (Paris 1961); B. Kotting, Der fruhchristliche Reliquienkult und die Bestattung im Kirchengebaude (Cologne 1965); W. Delius, Texte zur Gesch. der Marienverehrung und Marienverkundigung in der alten Kirche, KIT 178 (Berlin 1956); F. Spedalieri, Maria nella Scrittura e nella tradizione della Chiesa primitiva (Messina 1961); D. M. Montagna, La Iode alla theotokos nei testi greci dei secoli IV-VU (Rome 1963); B. Kotting, Peregrinatio religiosa (Munster 1950); A. Stuiber, Refrigerium interim (Bonn 1957); C. G. Rodriguez, El culto de los santos en la Espana romana y visigoda (Madrid 1966); Th. Klauser, Die Cathedra im Totenkult der heidnischen und christlichen Antike (Munster, 2nd ed. 1971); J. Zellinger, Augustinus und die Volksfrommigkeit (Munich 1933); St. McKenna,Paganism and Pagan Survivals in Spain up to the Fall of the Visigothic Kingdom (Washington 1938); M. Striedl, Antiker Volksglaube bei Johannes Chrysostomos (Diss. Wurzburg 1948).

 

19- Early Christian Monasticism: Development and Expansion in the East

 

I. The Religious and Historical Background SMALLER SOURCE COLLECTIONS

 

J. de Guibert, Documenta ecclesiastica ad christianae perfectionis Studium spectantia (Rome 1932); K. Koch, Quellen zur Geschichte der Askese und des Monchtums (Tubingen 1936); Enchiridion de statibus perfectionis (Rome 1949); H. U. v. Balthasar, Die grossen Ordens regeln (Cologne, 2nd ed. 1961); M.-J. Rouet de Journal-J. Dutilleul, Enchiridion as- ceticum (Freiburg, 6th ed. 1965).

 

GENERAL LITERATURE

 

Dictionnaire de Spiritualite (=DSp), ed. by Ch. Baumgarten-M. Olphe-Galliard (Paris 1932ff.); Beitrage zur Geschichte des alten Monchtums und des Benediktinerordens (Munster 191 lff-)- Works on special periods: Studia Monastica (Montserrat 1959ff.); Yermo (Mad rid 1963ff.). Surveys in the lexica: H. Leclercq, "Cenobitisme," DACL II, 3047-3248; id., "Monachisme," ibid., IX, 1774-1974; J. Olphe-Galliard, "Cenobitisme," DSp II, 405-416; A. Adam, "Monchtum," RGG3 IV, 1072-1081; I. Auf der Maur, "Monch- tum," LThK2 VII, 545-548; Th. Spidlik-J. Sainsaulieu, "Ermkes," DHGE XV, 776-787. Also: D. Gorce, La lectio divina des origines a S. Benoit et Cassiodore I (Paris 1925); J- Wagemann, Entwicklungsstufen des altesten Monchtums (Tubingen 1929); H. v. Campenhausen, Die asketische Heimatlosigkeit im altkirchlichen und fruhmittelalterlichen Monchtum (Tubingen 1930); Ph. Oppenheim, Das Monchskleid im Altertum (Munster 1931); K. Heussi, Der Ursprung des christlichen Monchtums (Tubingen 1936), also Th. Lefort: RHE 33 (1937), 341-348; M. Marx, Incessant Prayer in Ancient Monastic Litera ture (Vatican City 1947); E. E. Malone, The Monk and the Martyr (Washington 1950); Ph. Hofmeiser, "Monchtum und Seelsorge bis zum 13. Jh., "SM 65 (1953-54), 209-273; A. Adam, "Grundbegriffe des Monchtums in sprachlicher Sicht," ZKG 65 (1953-54), 209-239; I. Auf der Maur, Monchtum und Glaubensverkundigung (Fribourg 1959); L. Bouyer. The Spirituality of the New Testament and the Fathers (London/New York,

 

; G. Turbessi, Ascetismo e Monachesimo prebenedettino (Rome 1961); Theologie de la vie monastique. Etudes sur la doctrine patristique (Paris 1961); I. Hausherr, "Vocation chretienne et vocation monastique selon les Peres," La'icat et saintete I (Rome 1963), 33 -115; Los monjes y los estudios (Poblet 1963); S. Frank, AITEAIKOC BIOC (Munster

; U. Ranke-Heinemann, Das fruhe Monchtum. Seine Motive nach den Selbstzeugnis sen (Essen 1964); P. Nagel, Die Motive der Askese in der alten Kirche und der Ursprung des Monchtums (Berlin 1966); D. Knowles, From Pachomius to Ignatius. A Study in the Constitutional History of the Religious Orders (Oxford 1966); F. S. Pericoli Ridolfini, Alle origini del monachesimo. Le convergenze esseniche (Rome 1966); B. Lohse, Askese und Monch tum in der Antike und in der alten Kirche (Munich 1969); S. Frank, "Die Erforschung der Anfange des Monchtums und die Frage der Hermeneutik," FStud 53 (1971), 28-44.

II. Development and Expansion in the East

 

LITERATURE

 

J. M. Besse, Les moines d'Orient anterieurs au concile de Chalcedoine (Paris 1900); St. Schiwietz, Das morgenlandische Monchtum I×II (Modling 1904, 1913), III (Vienna 1938); N. R. Nugent, Portrait of the Consecrated Woman in Greek Literature in the First Four Centuries (Washington 1941); I. Hauscherr, Penthos. La doctrine de la componction dans l'Orient chretien (Rome 1944); Il Monachesimo Orientale (Rome 1958); Theologie de la vie monastique (Paris 1961); A.-J. Festugiere, Les moines d'Orient I (Paris 1961); J. Decar- raux, "Du monachisme primitif au monachisme athonite," Le Millenaire du Mont Athos I (Chevetogne 1963), 19-57; Cl. Lialine, "Eremitisme en Orient," DSAM IV, 936-953; J. Leclerq, "Problemes de 1 eremitisme," StudMon 5 (1963), 197-212; D. J. Chitty, The Desert a City (London 1965).

 

1. Egyptian Anchoritism. The Pachomians. The Monasticism of the Deserts of Nitria and Scete

 

SOURCES

 

ANTONY AND AMMONAS: Athanasius, Vita s. Antonii, PG 26, 835-976. The two Latin translations ofthe fourth century: l.ed. G. Garitte (Brussels 1939,alsoH. Hoppenbrouw- ers: Latinitas Christianorum primaeva 14, Nijmegen I960); 2. the translation of Evag- rius: PG 26, 835-976 and PL 73, 125-170, also L. Th. Lorie: Latin. Christ, prim. 11 (Nijmegen 1955); The Coptic translation, ed. G. Garitte: CSCO 117-118 (Louvain 1949). Studies on the life of Antony: K. Holl: G A II (Tiibingen 1928), 249-269; J. List, Das Antoniusleben des hl. Athanasius (Athens 1931); H. Dorries, "Die Vita Antonii als Geschichtsquelle," Wort und Stunde, Ges. Studien zur Kirchengeschichte des 4. Jh. (Gut tingen 1966), 145-224. English translation of the Vita with commentary by R. T. Meyer: ACW 10(1950). Antony's letters: Latin: PG 40,977-1019; 1065; Georgian, ed.

 

Garitte: CSCO 148-149 (Louvain 1955); on the authenticity: F. Klejna: ZKTh 62 (1938), 309-348. The Ammonas letters: Syria translation, ed. M. Kmosko: POr 10 (1915); Greek, ed. F. Nau: POr 11 (1916); Latin: PG 40, 1019-1060, also again F. Klejna, op. cit.

THE PACHOMIANS: F. Kozman, Textes legislatifs touchant le cenobitisme egyptien (Rome 1935); rule and letters of Pachomius, ed. A. Boon-Th. Lefort, Pachomiana latina (Lou vain 1932; Contents: "Rule" = Praecepta; letters [11]; Liber Horsiesii); Th. Lefort, "OEuvres de s. Pachome et de ses disciples," CSCO 159/160 (Louvain 1956); lives of Pachomius: 1. Coptic, ed. Th. Lefort: CSCO 89 and 107 (Louvain 1925); CSCO 99/100 (Louvain 1933/34). Th. Lefort, Les vies coptes de s. Pachome et de ses premiers disciples (Louvain 1943). 2. Greek, ed. F. Halkin, S. Pachomii Vitae graecae (Brussels 1932), also R. Draguet: Museon 70 (1957), 257-306; the Vita graeca I in French translation by A. -J. Festugiere: Les moines d'Orient IV 2 (Paris (1965); on the whole matter, A. Veilleux (see under Lit.), 1-137; also A. de Vogue: RHE 67 (1972), 26-27.×The Liber Orsiesii is edited by A. Boon, op. cit., 109-147; Coptic fragments: CSCO 159 (Louvain 1956), 63-99, by H. Bacht, Das Vermachtnis des Ursprungs. Studien zum fruhen Monchtum I (Wurzburg 1972), 57-189.×Life and works of Shenoute of Athribis (Coptic), ed. J. Leipoldt and W. E. Crum: CSCO 41, 42, 73 (Louvain 1906-13), the Latin translation by

 

Wiesmann: CSCO 96, 108, 129 (Louvain 1931, 1936, 1951). A life of Schenute by his pupil Besa, ed. J. Leipoldt: CSCO 41.

PALLADIUS: Historia Lausiaca, ed. C. Butler: Texts and Studies 6, 1-2 (Cambridge 1904); ed. A. Lucot (Paris 1912); on the history of the text, R. Draguet: Museon 57 (1944), 53-146; 58 (1945), 15-96; 60 (1947), 227-255; 63 (1950), 205-230; RHE 41 (1946), 321-364: 42 (1947), 5-49-×The Historia monachorum, ed. A.-J. Festugiere (Brussels 1971), with French translation and commentary.

 

THE APOPHTHEGMATA PATRUM: (a) Greek collection (alphabetically): PG 65, 71- 440, supplements by F. Nau: ROC 10-18 (1905-13); also W. Bousset, Apophthegmata (Tubingen 1923) and J. -Cl. Guy, Recherches sur la tradition grecque des Apophthegmata Patrum (Brussels 1962). (b) Latin collection (thematic): Verba Seniorum: PL 73, 381- 1062, supplemented by A. Wilmart: RBen 34 (1922), 185-198; on the transmission of the text, A. H. Salonius, Vitae Patrum (Lund 1920); on the planned new edition see C. M. Battle: StudMon I (1959), 115-120. W. Gemoll, Das Apophthegma (Vienna 1926). (c) Syriac collections: ed. P. Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum VIII (Paris 1897); F. A.

W. Budge, The Wit and Wisdom of the Christian Fathers of Egypt. The Syrian Version of the Apophth. Patrum (Oxford 1934). (d) Cassian, Collationes patrum, ed. M. Petschenig: CSEL 13 (Vienna 1886) and E. Pichery: SChr 42, 54, 64 (Paris 1955-59, with French translation). Translations of the Apophth.: R. Draguet, Les Peres du desert (Paris 1949, with important introduction); B. Miller, Weisung der Vater (Freiburg 1965, complete following the Greek text, in selections from the Latin collection, with bibliog. pp. 497-516); L. Regnault, Les sentences des Peres du desert. Nouveau recueil (Solemes 1970).

 

LITERATURE:

 

ANTONY: L Herding, Antonius der Einsiedler (Innsbruck 1929); L. Bouyer, La vie de s. Antoine (St. Wandrille 1950); B. Steidle, "Homo Dei Antonius," SA 38 (Rome 1956), 148-200; F. Giardini, La dottrina spirituale de s. Antonio abate e di Ammonio nelle loro lettere (Florence 1957).

 

PACHOMIANS: P. Ladeuze, Etude sur le cenobitismepakhomien pendant le IVesiecle et la I'm moitie du Ve (Paris 1898, reprinted. Frankfurt 1961); Th. Lefort "Les premiers monas teres pachomiens" (topographical exploration), Museon 52 (1939), 379-407; H. Bacht, "Antonius und Pachomius. Von der Anachorese zum Conobitentum," SA 38 (Rome 1956), 66-107; id., "Monchtum und Kirche. Eine Studie zur Spiritualitat des Pachomius," Sentire Ecclesiam (Freiburg 1961), 113-133; id., "Horsiesius," Das Ver machtnis des Ursprungs, 9-55; A. Veilleux, "La liturgie dans le cenobitisme pachomien au quatrieme siecle," SA 57 (Rome 1968); F. Ruppert, Das pachomianische Monchtum und die Anfange des klosterlichen Gehorsams (Munsterschwarzach 1971).×J. Leipoldt, "Schenute von Atripe und die Entstehung des national-agyptischen Monchtums," TU 25, I (Leipzig 1903); D. G. Muller, Die alte koptische Predigt (Diss. Heidelberg 1954).

 

MONASTICISM OF THE DESERTS OF NITRIA AND SCETE: A. L. Schmitz, "Die Welt der agyptischen Einsiedler und Monche," RQ 37 (1929), 189-244; P. Pesch, La doctrine ascetique des premiers maitres egyptiens du IVe siecle (Paris 1931); H. -G. E. White, The Monasteries of the Wadi n'Natran II (New York 1932); N. Schedl,./€*€ Christus. Sein Bild bei den Monchen der Sketis (Vienna 1942); H. O. Weber, Die Stellung des Joh. Cassians zur ausserpachomianischen Monchstradition (Munster 1960); O. F. A. Meinardus, Monks and Monasteries of the Egyptian Deserts (Cairo 1961).

 

2. Monasticism in Palestine and Syria SOURCES

 

Jerome, Vita Hilarionis, PL 23, 29-54; Anonymus, Vita Charitonis, ed. G. Garitte, BulllnstBelge de Rome 21 (1941), 16-146; Cyril of Scythopolis, Vita J. Euthymii, ed. E. Schwartz, TU 49, 2 (Berlin 1939), 3-85; French translation of this vita with commen tary by A. -J. Festugiere, Les Moines d'Orient III 1 (Paris 1962); Itinerarium Egeriae, ed. W. Heraeus (Heidelberg, 2nd ed. 1921); ed. H Petre, SChr 21 (Paris 1948); ed. Aet. Franceschini-R. Weber (Turnhout 1958); ed. H. Petre-K. Vretska (Klosterneuburg 1958, with translation and commentary); E. Lofstedt, Philologischer Kommentar zur Pereg- rinatio Aetheriae (Upsala 1911, reprinted. Darmstadt 1962); Jerome, Epistulae, ed. I. Hilberg, CSEL, 54-56; Gerontius, Vita S. Melaniae junioris, ed. D. Gorce, SChr, 90 (Paris 1962 with French translation and commentary).×Theodoret, Historia religiosa, PG 82, 1284-1496; chap. 26 ed. H. Lietzmann, "Das Leben des heiligen Symeon

 

Stylites," TU 32, 4 (Berlin 1908), 1-18. "Antonius mon., Vita Symeonis styl.," ed. H. Lietzmann, ibid., 20-78. The Syriac vita of Simeon in Bedjan IV, 507-644.×Socrates, HE.×Afrahat, "Sermo de monachis," ed. I. Parisot, PS I, 239-312. Ephraem, Hymni de Abraham Qidunaja, ed. Th. Lamy, S. Ephraemi Hymni et sermones III (Mecheln 1889), 749-863; Hymni de luliano SABA, ibid., 837-936. A Voobus, Syriac and Arabic Documents regarding Legislation relative to Syrian Asceticism (Stockholm I960).

 

LITERATURE

 

St. Schiwietz, Das morgenlandische Monchtum II (Mainz 1913); H. Leclercq, "Laures palestiniennes," DACL VIII (1928), 1961-88; E. Schwanz, Kyrillos von Skythopolis (Leipzig 1939); G. D. Gordini, "II monachesimo Romano in Palestina nel IV secolo," Saint Martin et son temps (Rome 1961), 85-107. St. Schiwietz, Das Monchtum in Syrien und Mesopotamien und das Aszetentum in Persien (Modling 1938); J. van der Ploeg, Oudsyrisch Monniksleven (Leyden 1942); A. Adam, "Grundbegriffe des Monchtums in sprachlicher Sicht," ZKG 65 (1953-54), 209-239; also E. Beck, "Ein Beitrag zur Ter minologie des altesten syrichen Monchtums," SA 39 (Rome 1956), 254-267; id., "As- ketentum und Monchtum bei Ephram,"// monachesimo orientale (Rome 1958), 341-362; O. Hendriks, "La vie cotidienne du moine syrien orientale," OrSyr 5 (I960), 293-330, 401-432; A. Voobus, History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient, I: The Origin of Asceti cism. Early Monasticism in Persia = CSCO 184 (Louvain I960); A. -J. Festugiere, "Les moines de Syrie," Antioche paienne et chretienne (Paris 1959), 245-406; P. Canivet, "Theodoret et le monachisme syrien avant le concile de Chalcedoine," Theologie de la Vie monastique (Paris 1961), 241-282; L Leloir, "La pense monastique d'Ephrem," Memo rial de l'ecole des Langues Orientales Anciennes (Paris 1964).

 

3. The Monasticism of Asia Minor and Constantinople

 

SOURCES

 

Canons and letters of the Synod of Gangra: Mansi II, 1095-1122, also Hefele-Leclerq 1/2, 1029-1045.×Basil's Asketikon: PG 31, 889-1305; Rufinus's Latin version: PL 103, 485-554. On the history of the text of Basil's Rules: F. Laun: ZKG 44 (1925), 1-61; Gribomont, Histoire du texte des Ascetiques de saint Basile (Louvain 1953); English trans lation with commentary by W. K. L. Clarke, The Ascetic Works of Saint Basil (London 1925). Basil's letters: new critical edition by Y. Courtonne, 3 vols. (Paris 1957-66).× The poems of Gregory Nazianzen on Monasticism: PG 37.×The ascetical works of Gregory of Nyssa: Greg. Nyss. Opera, ed. W. Jaeger et al., VIII, 1 (Leyden 1952); De virginitate, with French translation and commentary, ed. M. Aubineau: SChr 119 (Paris 1966).×Callinicus, Vita s. Hypatii, ed. G. J. M. Bartelink: SChr 111 (Paris 1971); French translation with commentary by A. -J. Festugiere, Les Moines d'Orient II (Paris 1961), 13-86.

 

ON MESSALIANISM: PS 1/3 (Paris 1926), cxl-cclxi; G. L. Marriott, Macarii anecdota (Cambridge, Mass. 1918); H. Dorries, "Symeon von Mesopotamien. Die Uber lieferung der Messalianischen 'Makarios' Schriften," TU 55, 1 (Leipzig 1941); W. Jaeger, Two Rediscovered Works of Ancient Christian Literature: Gregory of Nyssa and Macarius (Leiden 1954); E. Klostermann-H. Berthold, "Neue Homilien des Makarius (Symeon I: Aus Typus III)," TU 12 (Berlin 1961); Macarius's fifty spiritual homilies, ed. by H. Dorries-E. Klostermann-M. Kroeger: PTS 4 (Berlin 1964).

DIDLlUUIUVrniCO X KJ 11"N 1-/1V IL/u/lL L.nAr 1ERO

 

LITERATURE

 

J. Gribonmont, "Eustathe de Sebaste," DSp 4, 1708-1712 and DHGE 16, 26-33; id., "Le monachisme au IVe siecle en Asie Mineure: de Gangres au Messalianisme," Stpatr II (TU 64, Berlin 1957), 400-415; id., "Le monachisme au sein de l'Eglise en Syrie et en Cappadoce," StudMon 7 (1956), 7-24,×J. Pargoire, "Basile," DACL 2, 1, 501-510; G. Bardy, "Basile," DSAM 1, 1273-1283; M. G. Murphy, St. Basil and Monasticism (Washington 1930); P. Humbertelaude, La doctrine ascetique de s. Basile de Cesaree (Paris 1932); E. Amand, L'ascese monastique de saint Basile (Paris 1949); id., "Le systeme cenobitique basilien compare au systeme cenobitique pachomien," RHR 152 (1957), 31-80; J. Gribomont, "Le renoncement au monde dans l'ideal ascetique de s. Basile," Irenikon 31 (1958), 282-307, 460-475; id., "Saint Basile," Theologie de la Vie monastique (Paris 1961), 99-113; J. Plagnieux, "S. Gregoire de Nazianze," ibid., 115-130; J. Danielou, "S. Gregoire de Nysse dans l'histoire du monachisme," ibid., 131-141.×R. Janin, "La banlieue de Constantinople," series of articles in EO 21-23 and 26 (1922-24, 1927); id., Constantinople. Les eglises et les monasteres (Paris, 2nd ed. 1968 = La Geog raphie de l'Orient byzantin I, III); G. Dagron, "Les moines et la ville. Le monachisme a Constantinople jusqu'au concile de Chalcedoine," Travaux et Memoires 4 (1970), 229- 276; J. Pargoire, "Acemetes," DHGE 1, 307-321; V. Grumel, "Acemetes," DSAM 1, 169-175.

 

ON MESSAUANISM: I. Hausherr, "L'erreur fondamentale et la logique du mes salianisme," OrChrP 1 (1935), 328-360; A. Kemmer, Charisma maximum (Louvain 1938); H. Dorries, "Christlicher Humanismus und monchische Geist-Ethik," ThLZ 79 (1954), 643-656; A. Voobus, History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient II (Louvain i960), 127-139; J. Danielou, "Gregoire de Nysse et le Messalianisme," RSR 48 (i960), 119-134; H. Dorries, "Urteil and Verurteilung. Kirche und Messalianer," ZNW 55 (1964), 78-94 = Wort und Stunde (Gottingen 1966), 334-351; id., "Diadochus und Symeon," ibid., 352-422; R. Staats, "Gregor von Nyssa und die Messaliner," PTS 8 (Berlin 1968); J. Gribomont, "Le dossier des origines du messalianisme," Epektasis, Melanges J. Danielou (Paris 1972), 611-25.

 

20. The Monasticism of the Latin West LITEBATURE

 

GENERAL: See above chap. 19; also; G. Bardy, "Les origines des ecoles monastiques en Occident," SE 5 (1953), 86-104; W. Schatz, Studien zur Geschichte und Vorstellungswelt des fruhen abendlandischen Monchtums (typed diss. Freiburg 1957); O. Chadwick, Western Asceticism (London 1958: trans, of the Verba seniorum, Cassian, and the Benedictine Rule, with introductions); H. U. von Balthasar, Die grossen Ordensregeln (Einsiedeln, 2nd ed. 19 jl); J. Decarreaux, Les moines et la civilisation en Occident. Des invasions a Char lemagne (Paris 1964); R. Lorentz, "Die Anfange des abendlandischen Monchtums im 4. Jh.; ZKG 11 (1966), 1-61.

 

ITALY: G. D. Gordini, Forme di vita ascetica a Roma nel IV secolo (Alba 1952); id., "Origine e sviluppo del monachesimo a Roma," Gr. 37 (1956), 220-260 (lit.); G. Ferrari, Early Roman Monasteries, V-X cent. (Vatican City 1957); G. Pence, Storia del monachesimo in Italia I (Rome 1961).×Milan: A Roberti, "S. Ambrogio e il monachesimo," SC 68 (1940), 140-159, 236-253; R. de Izary, La virginite selon s.

 

Ambroise, 2 vols. (Diss. Lyon 1952); G. Penco. "Le origini del monachesimo in Liguria," Benedictina 9 (1956), 15-30.

 

GAUL: C. Courtois, "L'evolution du monachisme en Gaule de s. Martin a s. Colomban," Il monachesimo nell'alto medioevo e la formazione delia civilta occidentale (Spoleto 1957), 47-72; R. Metz, "Les vierges chretiennes en Gaul au IVe siecle," SA 46 (Rome 1961), 109-132; E. Griffe, "Moines et monasteres," La Gaul chretienne a l'epoque romaine 3 (Paris 1965), 299-352; F. Prinz, Fruhes Monchtum im Frankenreich (Munich 1965).× Martin of Tours: The most important source is the works on Martin by Sulpicius Severus: ed. C. Halm, CSEL 1 (Vienna 1866); new edition by B. Peebles-P. Hylton in CChr in preparation; the "Vita s. Martini" alone now in SChr 133-135 (Paris 1967-68), ed. J. Fontaine, with an important introduction in SChr 133, 17-210; Monographs on Martin: E. Ch. Babut (Paris 1912); A. Requier (Paris, 7th ed. 1929); J. Van den Bosch, Capa, basilica, monasterium et le culte de s. Martin de Tours (Nijmegen 1959); Saint Martin et son temps =SA 46 (Rome 1961), in it 3-24: E. Griffe, "Saint Martin et le monachisme gaulois."×Lerins: Sources: Hilarius Arelat., Sermo de vita s. Honorati, PL 50, 1249-1279; S. Cavallin, Vitaess. Honorati et Hilarii (Lund 1952), 49-78; Eucherius, De laude eremi, CSEL 31, 179-194; H. Leclercq, "Lerins," DACL 8, 2596-2627; L. Cristiani, Lerins :t ses fondateurs (St-Wandrille 1946); N. K. Chadwick, Poetry and Letters in Early Christian Gaul (London 1955), 142-169- ×John Cassian: a) Instituia Coenobiorum, ed. M. Petschenig: CSEL 13 (Vienna 1886); ed. J.-Cl. Guy; SChr 109 (Paris 1965); b) Collationes patrum, ed. M. Petschenig: CSEL 17 (Vienna 1888); ed. E. Pichery: SChr 42, 54 (Paris 1955, 1958, 1959).×M. Olphe-Galliard, "Cassien," DSAM 2, 214-276; M. Cappuyns, "Cassien," DHGE 11, 1319-1348; H. Leclercq, "Saint-Victor," DACL 15, 545-557: F. Benoit, L'Abbaye de s. Victor et l'eglise de la Major (Paris 1936); L. Cristiani, Jean Cassien (Paris 1946); H.-O. Weber, Die Stellung des Johannes Cassianus zur ausserpachomianischen Monchstradition (Munster 1961); J. -Cl. Guy, Jean Cassien, vie et doctrine (Paris 1961); O. Chadwick, John Cassian (Cambridge, 2nd. ed. 1967).×The Jura Monasteries: Vitae patrum Jurensium, ed. B. Krusch: MGSS rer. Mer. III, 131-166; ed. F. Martine: SChr 142 (Paris 1968, Lit.), also J. Doignon: RAM 46 (1970), 377-386; H. Leclercq: DACL 8, 430-438.

 

SPAIN: J. Perez de Urbel, Los monjes espanoles de la edad media I (Madrid, 2nd. ed. 1945); id., "Le monachisme en Espagne au temps de s. Martin," SA (Rome 1961), 45-65; A. Mundo, "Il monachesimo nella penisola Iberica," Il monachesimo nell'alto medievo (Spoleto 1957), 73-108; G. M. Gilbert, "El eremitismo en la Hispania romana," Espana eremitica (Pamplona 1970), 41-47.

 

NORTH AFRICA: J. M. Besse, Les moines de l'Afrique romaine, 2 vols. (Paris 1903); J.-M. Destal, "?Un cenobitismo preagustiniano en Africa?" in Ciudad de Dios 168 (1956), 375-405, 171 (1958), 161-195; G. Folliet, "Aux origines de l'ascetisme et du cenobitisme africain," SA 46 (1961), 25-44; J.-J. Gavigan, De vita monastica in Africa septentrionali inde a temporibus s. Augustini usque ad invasiones Arabum (Turin 1962, lit. IX-XXIV).×Augustine: M. Mellet, L'itineraire et l'ideal monastique de s. Augustin (Paris 1934); Sanctus Augustinus, vitae spiritualis magister, 2 vols. (Rome 1959); A. Manrique, La vida monastica en San Agustin (Salamanca 1959); D. Riccardi, La ver- gin i ta nella vita religiosa secondo la dottrina di s. Agostino (Turin 1961); A. Sage, La regle de .t. Augustin commentee par ses ecrits (Paris 1961); E. Boularand, "Experience et conception de la vie monastique chez s. Augustin," BLE 64 (1963), 81-116, 172-194; A. Man rique, Teologia Agustiniana de la vida religiosa (El Escorial 1964); L. Cilleruelo, El monacato de San Agustin (Valladolid 1966); L. Verheijen, La regle de s. Augustin, I: Tradition manuscrite; II: Recherches historiques, comprehensive bibliog. pp. 221-239

BiBUU<jKAJr"lI13 1U 1XMU1YIUUAL V-nATlEKS

 

(Paris 1967); A. Zumkeller, Das Monchtum des heiligen Augustinus (Wurzburg, 2nd ed. 1968, with lit. 17-31, 323-332).

 

CRITICISM OF MONASTICISM: John Chrysostom, Adv. oppugnatores vita monasticae: PG 47, 319-386; Jerome, Contra Vigilantium and Adversus Jovinianum: PL 23; Augustine, De opere monachorum: CSEL 41 (Vienna 1900). ×P. de Labriolle, "Rutilius Namatianus et les moines," REL 6 (1928), 30-41; L. Gougaud, "Les critiques formulees contre les premiers moines d'Occident," RMab 24 (1939), 145-163; P. Antin, "Le monachisme selon s. Jerome," MelBenedictins (St-Wandrille 1947), 69-113; A.-J. Festugiere, Anti- oche pa'ienne et chretienne (Paris 1959), 192-210.

 

21. Church and Society LITERATURE

 

GENERAL: S. Mazzarino, Aspetti sociali del quarto secolo (Rome 1951); M. Rostovtzeff, Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, revised ed. by P. M. Fraser, 2 vols. (London 1957); W. Seyfarth, Soziale Fragen der spatromischen Kaiserzeit im Spiegel des Theodosianus (Berlin 1963); A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284-602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey I-IV (Oxford 1964); J. Vogt, Der Niedergang Roms. Metamorphose der antiken Kultur von 200-500 (Zurich 1965); id., Kulturwelt und Barba ren. Zum Menschenbild der spantiken Gesellschaft (Wiesbaden 1967); J. Gaudemet, Les Institutiones de l'Antiquite (Paris 1967); J. Gage, Les classes sociales dans iempire romain (Paris, 2nd ed. 1971). ×N. Baynes, The Early Church and Social Life. A Selected Bibliog raphy (London 1927); L. Polverini, "Societa antica e cristianesimo," Problemi di storia delia Chiesa, sec. II-4V (Milan 1970), 13-31 (report on research); E. Troeltsch, Die Soziallehren der christlichen Kirchen und Gruppen (Tubingen 1912); J. Mausbach, Die Ethik des heiligen Augustinus (Freiburg, 2nd ed. 1929); H.-J. Diesner, Studien zur Gesellschaftslehre und sozialen Haltung Augustins (Halle 1954); J. Gaudemet, L'eglise dans l'empire Romain, IVe-Ve siecles (Paris 1958); R. Sierro Bravo, Doctrina social y econemica de los Padres de la Iglesia (Madrid 1967; extensive collection of texts); P. Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine (London 1972).

 

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY: L Godefroy, "Marriage," DThC IX, 2077-2113; H. Lec- lercq, "Marriage," DACL X, 1899-1982 (monuments); id., "Femme," ibid., V, 1300- 1353; id., "Alumni," ibid., I, 1288-1306 (exposing of children); A. Oepke, "Ehe (In stitution)," RAC IV, 651-666; G. Delling, "Ehebruch, Eheleben, Ehescheidung," ibid., IV, 666-719; H. Karpp, "Eltern," ibid., IV, 1206-1219; J. Gaudemet, "Familie," ibid., VII, 336-357; N. Ladomierszky, S. Augustin, docteur du marriage chretien (Rome 1942); W. J. Dooley, Marriage according to St. Ambrose (Washington 1948); B. Biondi, Diritto romano cristiano III (Milan 1954); F. Delpini, Divorzio e separazione dei conjugi nel diritto romano e nella dottrina della Chiesa fino al secolo V (Turin 1956); J. Gaudemet, L'Eglise dans l'Empire romain (Paris 1958), 514-569; id., "Les transformations de la vie familiale au Bas-Empire et l'influence du cristianisme," Romanitas 4 (1962), 58-85; V. J. Pos- pishil, Divorce and Remarriage (New York 1967); H. Crouzel, L'eglise primitive face au divorce (Paris 1971).

 

THE SOCIAL SPHERE

 

A) CHURCH AND SLAVERY: H. Leclercq, "Esclaves," DACL V, 387-398; A. G. Kies, Gedanken des hl. Augustinus uber die Sklaverei (Vienna 1942); B. Biondi, Diritto romano cristiano II (Rome 1952), 373-447; W. L. Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (Philadelphia 1955); F. Michelini, Schiavitu, religioni antiche e cris- tianesimo primitivo (Bari 1963); M. I. Finley (ed.), Slavery in Classical Antiquity (Cam bridge, 2nd ed. 1968; bibliog.); W. W. Buckland, Roman Laws of Slavery (London 1970); H. Bellen, Studien zur Sklavenflucht im romischen Kaiserreich (Wiesbaden 1971); J. Vogt, Sklaverei und Humanitat. Studien zur antiken Slaverei und iher Erforschung (Wiesbaden, 2nd ed. 1972); J. Vogt-N. Brockmeyer, Bibliogr. zur antiken Sklaverei (Bochum 1971); J. Schmidt, Vie et mort des esclaves dans la Rome antique (Paris 1973).

 

B) WEALTH AND POVERTY: R. Pohlmann, Gesch. der sozialen Frage und des Sozialismus in der antiken Welt, 2 vols, (Munich, 3rd ed. 1925); H. Bolkestein, Wohltatigkeit und Armenpflege im vorchristlichen Altertum (Utrecht 1939); H. P. Kohns, Versorgungskrisen und Hungerrevolten im spatantiken Rom (Bonn 1961); A. R. Hands, Charities and Social Aid in Greece and Rome (London 1968; to A. D. 250). ×The articles "Almosen," "Ar menpflege," "Armut," "Barmherzigkeit" in RAC I; "Gastfreundschaft," ibid., VIII, 1110-1123; "Charite," DACL III, 598-653; "Hopitaux," "Hospices," "Hotelleries," ibid., VI, 2748-2770, "Liberalite des fideles," ibid., IX, 489-497; "Hospitalite," DSAM VII, 815-819; G. Uhlhorn, Die christliche Liebestatigkeit (Darmstadt, reprint ed. 1959), 130-236; O. Schilling,/?€'^/¿€ und Eigentum in der altchristlichen Lit. (Freiburg 1908); W. Liese, Gesch. der Caritas (Freiburg 1922); M. Pellegrino, Salviano di Massiglia (Rome 1942); S. Giet, Les idees et l'action sociales de s. Basil (Paris 1941); A. T. Geoghe- gan, The Attitude towards Labor in Early Christian and Ancient Culture (Washington 1945); J. Huhn, Ambrosius von Mailand, ein sozialer Bischof (Fulda 1946); M. Pellegrino, S. Giovanni Crisostomo. Richezza e poverta (Rome 1947); K. Farner, Christentum und Eigentum bis auf Thomas von Aquin (Bern 1947); E. F. Bruck, Kirchenvater und soziales Erbrecht (Berlin-Heidelberg 1956); A. Hamman, Riehes et pauvres dans l'eglise ancienne (Paris 1962, Texts); P. Christophe, L'usage chretien du droit de propriete dans l'Ecriture et la tradition patristique (Paris 1964); W. Schneemelcher, "Der diakonische Dienst in der alten Kirche," Das diakonische Amt der Kirche, ed. H. Krimm (Stuttgart, 2nd ed. 1965), 61-105; A. Hamman, Vie liturgique et vie sociale . . . dans l'antiquite chretienne (Paris 1968).

 

THE CULTURAL SPHERE: P. Courcelle, Les lettres grecques en Occident de Macrobe a Cassiodore (Paris, 2nd ed. 1948); H.-I. Marrou, S. Augustin et la fin de la culture antique (Paris, 2nd ed. 1949); R. Eiswirth, Hieronymus' Stellung zu Lit. und Kunst (Wiesbaden 1955); C. N. Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture (New York, 2nd ed. 1957); O. Gigon, Die antike Kultur und das Christentum (Gutersloh 1966); A. Wifstrand, Die alte Kirche und die griechische Bildung (Bern 1967); Ecriture et culture philosophique dans la pensee de Gregoire de Nysse (Leyden 1971; lectures); H. Jurgen, Pompa diaboli. Die lateinischen Kirchenvater und das antike Theater (Stuttgart 1972); W. Weismann, Kirche und Schauspiele. Die Schauspiele im Urteil der lateinischen Kirchenvater unter besonderer Berucksichtigung von Augustin (Wurtzburg 1972).

 

Part Four The Early Byzantine Church

 

The Henoticon and the Acacian Schism SOURCES

Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum, ed. E. Schwartz, II, 5 Collectio Sangermanensis 1936; E. Schwartz, "Publizistische Sammlungen zum akakianischen Schisma," AAM n.s. 10 (1934); id., "Der Codex Vaticanus graecus 1431, eine antichalkedonische Sammlung aus der Zeit Kaiser Zenos," AAM 32, 6 (1927); Collectio Avellana -Epistulae Im- peratorum, Porttificum, aliorum inde ab anno 367 usque ad annum 553 datae (Avellana Collectio), ed. O. Gunther (Vienna 1895-98).

 

LITERATURE

 

F. Hofmann, "Der Kampf der Papste um Konzil und Dogma von Chalkedon von Leo dem Grossen bis Hormisdas (451-519)," Chalkedon II (1953), 13-94; R. Haacke, "Die kaiserliche Politik in den Auseinandersetzungen im Chalkedon (451-553)," ibid., 95- 177; S. Helmer, Der Neuchalkedonismus (Bonn 1962); I. E. Anastasiou, "Relation of Popes and Patriarchs of Constantinople in Frame of Imperial Policy from the Time of the Acacian Schism to the Death of Justinian," / patriarcati orientali nel prime millennio (Rome 1968), 55-69; P. Charanis, Church and State in the Later Roman Empire. The religious policy of Anastasius the First (Thessalonica 1974).

 

The Elaboration of the Church of the Byzantine Empire in the Age of the Emperor Justinian I

SOURCES

 

Collectio Avellana (see p. 3); Acta Conciliorum oecumenicorum, ed. E. Schwartz, II (Berlin 1940); E. Schwartz, "Drei dogmatische Schriften Justinians," AAM n.s. 18 (1939) (Milan, reprint ed. 1973); Corpus Juris Civilis, ed. stereot. II; Codex Justinianus, ed. P. Kruger (1906); Novellae, ed. Scholl-Kroll (1912); The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius, ed. J. Bidez-L. Parmentier (London 1898); Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia, ed. Haury-Wirth (Leipzig 1963-1964).

 

LITERATURE

A. A. Vasiliev, Justin the First (Cambridge, Mass. 1950); W. Schubart, Justinian und Theodora (Munich 1943); B. Rubin, Das Zeitalter Justinians (Berlin I960); R. Brown ing,Justinian and Theodora (London 1971); A. Knecht, Die Religionspolitik Kaiser Justi- nians I. (Wurzburg 1896); E. Schwartz, "Vigilius Briefe×Zur Kirchenpolitik Justi- nians," SAM 1940, 4(1940); id., Kyrillos von Skythopolis (Leipzig 1939); H. S. Alivisatos, Die kirchliche Gesetzgebung des Kaisers Justinian I. (Berlin 1913); J. Meyendorff, "Justi nian, the Empire and the Church," DOP 22 (1968), 43-60; E. Hardy, "The Egyptian Policy of Justinian," DOP 22 (1968), 21-41.

 

24. Justinian's Zigzag Course: The Origenist Troubles

 

25- The Controversy over the Three Chapters and the Fifth General Council. End of the Age of Justinian

 

SOURCES

 

Mansi IX, 171-657; ACO IV, Concilium universale Constantinopolitanum, ed. J. Straub (Berlin 1971); E. Schwartz, "Drei dogmatische Schriften Justinians," AAM n.s. 18 (Munich 1939).

 

LITERATURE

 

E. Amann, "Trois Chapitres," DThC XV, 1868-1924; Hefele-Leclercq III 1, 1-132; R. Devreesse, "Le cinquieme concile et l'oecumenicite byzantine," MiscMercati III (Rome 1946), 1-15; Ch. Moeller, "Le cinquieme concile oecumenique et le magistere or dinaire," RSPhTh 35 (1951), 413-423; E. Chrysos, Die Bischofslisten des V. okumenischen Konzils (553) (Bonn 1966); E. Schwartz, "Vigiliusbriefe. Zur Kirchenpolitik Justinians," SAM 1940, 2 (Munich 1940); F. Diekamp, Die origenistischen Streitigkeiten im sechsten Jh. und das funfte allgemeine Concil (Munster 1899); E. K. Chrysos, 'H eK€\T)criaoTi€7) ttoKltlkti tov 'lovorivuxvov Kara rr\v epiv irspi ra Tpixx KetpaXaia Kai TTjv e olKovfiefiKriv avvobov (Thessalonica 1969); id., "Tfirj/jutTa t(uv HpaKTiKiuv rrjc e' oiKovfisviicrjc crvfooov irapa ?vtfianivois xpovoypdipoic," KXTjpovo/iia 2 (1970), 376-401; J. Straub, "Die Verurteilung der drei Kapitel durch Vigilius," Kk-qpovop.'wi 2 (1970), 347-375; W. de Vries, "Das zweite Konzil von Konstantinopel (553) und das Lehramt von Papst und Kirche" in OrChrP 38 (1972), 331-366.

 

26. Justinian's Successors: Monoenergism and Monothelitism SOURCES

 

"Akten der romischen Synode von 649 and Akten des okum. Konzils von 680-81": Mansi XI, 190-922 (preparation of the new critical edition of both synods by the Bayer. Akademie der Wissenschaften); Theophanes Confessor, ed. C. de Boor (Leipzig 1883- 85); Nicephorus Patriarche, ed. C. de Boor (Leipzig 1880).

 

LITERATURE

 

P. Goubert, Byzance avant l'Islam sous les successeurs deJustinien Ier (Paris 1951); id., "Les T _ : et le monophysisme," Chalkedon II, 179-192; M. Jugie,

 

 

"Monothelisme," DThC X 2, 2307-23; V. Grumel, "Recherches sur l'histoire du monothelisme," EO 27 (1928), 6-16, 257-277; 28 (1929) 19-34, 158-166, 272-282; 29 (1930), 16-28; P. Verghese, "The Monothelite Controversy×a Historical Survey," Greek Orth. Theol. Review 13 (1968), 196-211.

 

2 7. The Rise of National Churches on the Frontiers of the Byzantine Empire LITERATURE

 

L. Duchesne, Les eglises separees (Paris 1896); K. Lubeck, Die christliche Kirche des Orients (Kempten 1911); A. Fortescue, The Lesser Eastern Churches (London 1913); J. B. Kidd, The Church of Eastern Christendom from 451 to the Present Time (London 1927); F. Heiler, Urkirche und Ostkirche (Munich 1937); D. Attwater, The Christian Churches of the East II (Milwaukee 1946); W. de Vries, Der christliche Osten in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Wurzburg 1951); R. Janin, Les eglises orientales et les rites orientaux (Paris, 5th ed. 1956); W. de Vries, Die orientalischen Kirchen (Wurzburg I960); B. Spuler, "Die morgenlandi schen Kirchen," Hdb. der Orientalistik 1/8, 2 (Leiden 1961) 120-324; I patriarcati orien tal! nel primo millennio, Orientalia christiana analecta 181 (Rome 1968).

 

THE CHURCH OF THE NESTORIANS: G. P. Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals, 2 vols. (London 1852); J. Labourt, Le christianisme dans l'empire Perse sous la dynastie sassanide (224-632) (Paris 1904); W. A. Wigram, An Introduction to the History of the Assyrian Church (London 1910); E. Amann-E. Tisserant, "L'eglise nestorienne," DThC XI 1, 157-223; A. Christensen, L'Iran sous les Sassanides (Copenhagen 1936); A. K. Arbanites, ' laropia rrcc bKravpuxKrjc veoTopuxviKr?<i kKKA.T)<rias (Athens 1968).

 

THE COPTIC CHURCH: J. Leipoldt, Schenute von Atripe und die Entstehung des nation alagyptischen Christentums (Leipzig 1903); J. Maspero, Histoire des patriarches d'Alexan drie depuis la mort de l'empereur Anastase jusqu'a la reconciliation des eglises jacobites (518- 616) (Paris 1923); A. Vlieger, The Origin and Early History of the Coptic Church (Lausanne 1900); M. Jugie, "Monophysisme (eglise copte)," DThC X, 2251-2306; Chr. Papadopulos, ' IoTopta rrjc ?KKAT) o-iac 'AXe^afopeiac (Alexandria 1934); A Bohlig, Agypten und Byzanz bis zur arabischen Zeit (Munich 1953); C. D. G. Muller, "Die koptische Kirche zwischen Chalkedon und dem Arabereinmarsch," ZKG 75 (1964), 271-308; E. L. Butcher, The Story of the Church of Egypt (London 1897); D. Muller, "Aufbau und Entwicklung der koptischen Kirche nach Chalkedon," Kyrios 10 (1970), 202-210.

 

THE JACOBITE CHURCH: W. A. Wigram, The Separation of the Monophysites (London 1923); M. Jugie, "Eglise syrienne monophysite," DThC X 2216-2251; E. Honigmann, Eveques et eveches monophysites d'Asie anterieure au VIe siecle (Louvain 1951); A. van Roey, "Les debuts de l'eglise jacobite," Chalkedon II, 339-360; W. Hage, Diesyrisch-Jakobitische Kirche in fruhislamischer Zeit nach orientalischen Quellen (Wiesbaden 1966); A. Voobus, "The Origin of the Monophysite Church in Syria," CH 42 (1973), 17-26; W. H. C. Frend, "Severus of Antioch and the Origins of the Monophysite Hierarchy," The Heritage of the Early Church. Essays in Honor of G. V. Florovsky (Rome 1973), 261-275.

 

THE CHURCH OF THE ARMENIANS: F. Tournebize, Histoire politique et religieuse de l'Armenie (Paris 1900); id., "Armenie," DHGE IV (1925), 290-391; R. Grousset, His toire de l'Armenie des origines a 1071 (Paris 1947); A. Ter-Mikelian, Die armenische Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zur byzantinischen vom IV. bis zum XIII. Jh. (Leipzig 1892); E.

Ter-Minassiantz, Die armenische Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu den syrischen Kirchen bis zum Ende des 13. Jh. (Leipzig 1904); M. Ormanian-T. Poladian, The Church of Armenia (London 1955).

 

Early Byzantine Monasticism LITERATURE

St. Schiwietz, Das morgenlandische Monchtum, 3 vols. (Mainz and Modling 1904-38); J. Bremond, Les peres du desert (Paris 1927); K. Holl, Enthusiasmus und Bussgewalt (Leipzig 1898); P. van Cauwenbergh, Etudes sur les moines d'Egypte depuis le concile de Chalcedoine jusqu'a l'invasion arabe (Paris 1914); R. Draguet, Les peres du desert (Paris 1949); A.-J. Festugiere, Les moines d'Orient (Paris 196lff.); H. Bacht, "DieRolle des Monchtums in den kirchenpolitischen Auseinandersetzungen um Chalkedon," Chalkedon II, 193-304; D. J. Chitty, The Desert a City (Oxford 1966); R. Janin, Les eglises et les monasteres de Constantinople (Paris 1953).

 

Theological and Religious Literature LITERATURE

M. Richard, "Le neo-chalcedonisme," MSR 3 (1946), 156-161; Ch. Moeller, "Le chal- cedonisme et le neo-chalcedonisme en Orient de 451 a la fin du VIe siecle," Chalkedon I, 637-720; W. Eiert, Der Ausgang der altchristlichen Christologie (Berlin 1957); S. Helmer, Der Neuchalkedonismus (Bonn 1962); M. Jugie, "Monothelisme," DThC X 2, 2307-2323; M. Viller-K. Rahner, Aszese und Mystik in der Vaterzeit (Freiburg 1939); R. Devreese, "Chaines exegetiques" in DBS I, 1084-1233.

 

Organization and Life of the Eastern Imperial Church LITERATURE

F. Dvornik, Byzance et la primaute Romaine (Paris 1964; English trans. 1966); A. Michel, "Der Kampf um das politische oder petrinische Prinzip der Kirchenfuhrung," Chalkedon II, 491-562; E. Herman, "Chalkedon und die Augestaltung des konstantinopolitani- schen Primats," ibid., II, 459-490; Feine, RG; L. Wenger, Die quellen des romischen Rechts (Vienna 1953); J.-M. Hanssens, Institutiones liturgicae ritibus orientalibus II-III (Rome 1930-32); S. Salaville, Liturgies orientales (Paris 1942); N. Liesel, Die Liturgien der Ostkirche (Freiburg I960); H. J. Schulz, Die byzantinische Liturgie (Freiburg 1964). ×On Iconology: Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst I, 616-662 (K. Wessel); D. Talbot Rice, Art of the Byzantine Era (London 1963); O. Demus, "Die Rolle der byzantinischen Kunst in Europa," inJOByzG 14 (1965), 139-155.

 

Missionary Activity of the Early Byzantine Imperial Church

The Assault of Islam

 

Part Five

 

The Latin Church in the Transition to the Early

 

Middle Ages

 

SECTION ONE

 

The Missionary Work of the Latin Church

 

33. The Origins of Christianity in Ireland and Scotland SOURCES

 

Libri s. Patricii, ed. N. J. D. White (minor edition, London 1918); Libri epistolarum s. Patricii episcopi, ed. L. Bieler; L. Bieler, The Works of St. Patrick (London 1953; English translation with commentary); Liber Ardmachanus in The Book of Armagh, ed. J. Gwynn (Dublin 1913); The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick in Rer. Brit, medii aevi scriptores 89, 2 vols., ed. Whitley Stokes (London 1887); Vitae sanctorum Hiberniae, ed. C. Plummer (Oxford 1910); Adamnani Vita Columbae, ed. I. T. Towler (Oxford 1920); Adamnan's Life ofColumba, ed. A. O. and M. O. Anderson (London 1961); G. S. M. Walker, S. Columbani opera (Dublin 1957); Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, ed. A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs I (Oxford 1869). ×Other sources (annals, vitae, inscriptions, etc.): J. F. Kenney, Sources for the Early History of Ireland I (New York 1929), as well as the bibliog. in R. P. C. Hanson, Saint Patrick (Oxford 1968). ×K. Hughes, "Early Christian Ireland, Introduction to the Sources," in The Sources of History. Studies in the Uses of Historical Evidence, ed. G. R. Elton, 1972.

 

LITERATURE

 

PROFANE HISTORY: E. Curtis, A History of Ireland (London 6th ed. 1952). To be corrected by: T. F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin 1946); D. A. Binchy, "The Fair of Tailtiu and the Feast of Tara," Eriu 18 (1958), 113-138; J. V. Kelleher, "Early Irish History and Pseudo-History," Studia Hibernica 3 (1963), 113× 127; N. Chadwick, Celtic Britain (London 1963); H. M. Chadwick, Early Scotland (Cambridge 1949). ×Other literature in R. P. C. Hanson, op. cit.

 

HISTORY OF THE MISSION AND THE CHURCH: L. Gougaud, Christianity in Celtic Lands (London 1932); W. A. Phillips, History of the Church of Ireland I (Oxford 1933);

K. Hughes, The Church in Early Irish Society (London 1966); W. Delius, Gesch. der irischen Kirch von ihren Anfangen bis zum 12. Jh. (Munich-Basel 1954); H. Williams, Christianity in Early Britain (Oxford 1912); J. Bulloch, The Life of the Celtic Church (Edinburgh 1963); N. Chadwick, Studies in the Early British Church (Cambridge 1958); id., The Age of Saints in the Early Celtic Church (Oxford 1961); J. Mac Queen, St. Nynia (Edinburgh 1961); W. D. Simpson, St. Ninian and the Origin of the Christian Church in Scotland (Edinburgh 1940); L. Bieler, The Life and Legend of St. Patrick (Dublin 1949); id., "La conversione al cristianesimo dei Celti insulari e le sue ripercussioni nel con tinente," Settimane di studio . . . XIV. La conversione al cristianesimo . . . (Spoleto

 

, 559-580; J. Carney, The Problem of St. Patrick (Dublin 1961); R. P. C. Hanson, St. Patrick a British Missionary Bishop (Nottingham 1965); id., St. Patrick (Oxford

; J. Ryan, "The Early Irish Church and the See of St. Peter," Settimane di studio . . .VII. Le chiese nei regni dell'Europa occidentale . . . II (Spoleto I960), 549-574; id., Irish Monasticism (Dublin 1931); J. A. Duke, The Columban Church (Edinburgh 1932); M. M. Dubois, St. Colomban (Paris 1950); Melanges colombaniens (Paris 1950); G. Schreiber, Irland im deutschen und abendlandischen Sakralraum (Cologne-Opladen 1956).

HISTORY OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE: Chr. Mohrmann, The Latin of St. Patrick (Dublin 1961); K. Meyer, Learning in Ireland in the Fifth Century (Dublin 1913); A. Lorcin, "La vie scolaire dans les monasteres d'Irlande aux 5e-7e siecles," Le Moyen Age Latin 1 (1945), 221-236; B. Bischoff, "Il monachesimo irlandese nei suoi rapporti col continente," Settimane di studio . . . IV. Il monachesimo nell'alto medio evo e la formazione delia civilta occidentale (Spoleto 1957), 121-138.

 

34. The Conversion of the Franks and Burgundians. Origin and Organization of the Merovingian National Church

 

SOURCES

 

AiG Scriptores. Auetores antiquissimi IV (Venantius Fortunatus) and VI, 2 (Avitus of Vienne); Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum I-VII (chronicles and vitae of the Merovingian period, including Gregory of Tours). ×MG Leges. Leges nationum germanicarum (Lex Salica, Ribuaria, Alamannorum, Baiuvariorum); Capitularia regum Francorum I; Concilia I (Synods of the Merovingian Kingdom). Other editions of tribal laws: K. A. Eckhardt, Germanenrechte resp. Germanenrechte n.s. ×MG Diplomata imperii I, ed. Peru (Merovingian royal charters and charters of the Carolingian mayors). New partial edi tion: Lauer-Samaran, Diplomes originaux des Merovingiens (Paris 1908); older edition, including private charters: Brequigny-Pardessus, Diplomata, chartae, leges ... ad res franco-gallicas spectantia I and II (Paris 1843-49; reprint ed. Aalen 1969). ×MG Epis- tolae I and II (Register of Gregory the Great), III (collections of letters and letters of the Merovingian period, including Columban's). ×Introduction to the sources: A. Molinier, Les sources de l'histoire de France I (Paris 1901); Wattenbach-Levison, Deutsch lands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter. Vorzeit und Karolinger I (Weimar 1952) and sup plement: R. Buchner, Die Rechtsquellen (Weimar 1953).

 

HISTORIES OF THE FRANKS: E. Zollner, Gesch. der Franken bis zur Mitte des 6. Jh. (Munich 1970); F. Lot, Naissance de la France (Paris, 2nd ed. 1970); F. Steinbach, Das Frankenreich: Hdb. der dt. Gesch. I2, ed. O. Brandt-A. O. Meyer-L. Just, 9. Lf. (n.d.); H. Loewe, Deutschland im frankischen Reich: B. Gebhardt, Hdb. d. dt. Gesch. I8, ed. H. Grundmann (1954); G. Tessier, Le bapteme de Clovis (Paris 1964), excellent presentation,

 

 

in which, despite the title, all of Merovingian history is treated; A. Lippold, "Chlodovechus," RE Suppl. (1974), 139-174.

 

ORGANIZATION OF THE FRANKISH KINGDOM: E. Ewig, "Die frankischen Teilungen und Teilreiche 511-613," AAMz 1952 no. 9; id., "Die frankischen Teilreiche im 7. Jh.," in Trierer Zschr. 22 (1954), 85-144; id., Descriptio Franciae: Karl der Grosse. Lebenswerk und Nachleben I, ed. W. Braunfels×W. Beumann (Dusseldorf 1965), 143-177.

 

TRIBAL LAW: F. Beyerle, "Die Lex Ribuaria," ZSavRGgerm. 48 (1928) 348ff.; id., "Das Gesetzbuch Ribuariens," ibid., 55 (1935) LOFF.; id. in the introduction to the edition of the MG Leges 1/3, 2; K. A. Eckhardt, Lex Ribuaria I (Gottingen 1959); F. Beyerle, "Die suddeutschen Leges und die merowingische Gesetzgebung," ZSavRGgerm. 49 (1929), 264-432; id., "Die beiden suddeutschen Stammescrechte," ibid., 73 (1956), 24-140; K. A. Eckhardt, "Leges Alamannorum," Germanenrechte m.s. (Gottingen 1958).

 

HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AND MISSION OF THE FRANKISH KINGDOM AND ITS PARTS: A. Hauck, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands I (Berlin 8th ed., reprint ed. 1954); K. D. Schmidt, DieBekehrungder Germanen zum Christentum, II: Die katholische Mission bei den Westgermanen (Gottingen n.d. [1942}), 1-105 (Franks), 174-192 (Alemanni); Hoops, Reallexikon der germ. Altertumskunde II2 (1974), "Bekehrung und Bekehrungsgeschichte," 177 (O. Gschwantler, Burgundians), and 180-188 (K. Schafer- diek, Germany and neighboring lands); E. Ewig, "Die christliche Mission bei den Fran ken und im Merowingerreich," MiscHist Eccl 3 (1970), 24-52; G. Tessier, "La conver- sione de Clovis et la christianisation des Francs," Settimane di studio . . . XIV. La conversione al cristianesimo nell'Europa deWAlto Medioevo (Spoleto 1967), 149-189; E. Male, La fin du paganisme en Gaule et les plus anciennes basiliques chretiennes (Paris 1950); H. Buttner, "Die Franken und die Ausbreitung des Christentums bis zu den Tagen des Bonifatius," Hess. Jb. fur Landesgesch. 1 (1951), 8-24; id., "Mission und Kirchenorgani sation des Frankenreiches bis zum Tode Karls des Grossen," Karl der Grosse. Lebenswerk und Nachleben I, ed. W. Braunfels-H. Beumann (Dusseldorf 1965), 454-487; E. de Moreau, Histoire de l'eglise en Belgique I (Brussels 2nd ed. 1945); R. Bauerreiss, Kir chengeschichte Bayerns I (St. Ottilien, 2nd ed. 1958); K. Tuchle, Kirchengeschichte Schwa bens I (Stuttgart 1950); P. Paulsen, "Die Anfange des Christentums bei den Aleman nen," Zschr. fur wurtt. Landesgesch. 15 (1956), 1-24; H. Buttner-I. Muller, Fruhes Christentum im schweizerischen Alpenraum (Einsiedeln 1957); W. Neuss-F. W. Oediger, Gesch. des Erzbistums Koln I (Cologne 1964); H. Patze-W. Schlesinger, Geschichte Thuringens I (Cologne-Graz 1968); pertinent remarks, especially on the literature, in F. Delbono, "La letteratura catechetica di lingua tedesca," Settimane di studio . . . XIV. La conversione al cristianesimo . . . (Spoleto 1967), 697ff.

 

NOTION OF UNIVERSAL MISSION: W. H. Fritze, "Universalis gentium confessio," Fruhma. Studien 3 (1969), 78-130.

 

MISSION AND MONASTICISM: F. Prinz, Fruhes Monchtum im Frankenreich (Munich- Vienna 1965).

 

CANON LAW AND CONSTITUTION: K. Voigt, Staat und Kirche von Constantin d. Gr. bis zur Karolingerzeit (Stuttgart 1936); Carlo de Clercq, La legislation religieuse franque de Clovis a Charlemagne, Univ. de. Louvain. Recueil de travaux publies par les membres des Conferences d'Histoire et de Philologie, 2e serie, 38e fasc. (Louvain-Paris 1936); H. Barion, "Das frankisch-deutsche Synodalrecht des Fruhmittelalters," KStuT 5/6 (Bonn- Cologne 1931; reprint ed. Amsterdam 1963); E. Lesne, Histoire de la propriete ecclesias tique, 6 vols, in 8 parts (Lille 1910-43).

 

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM: H.-I. Marrou, Histoire de l'education dans l'antiquite (Paris 1949); R. Riche, "L'instruction des laics en Gaul merovingienne au 7e siecle," Settimane di studio ... V. Caratteri del seculo VII in Occidente II (Spoleto 1958), 873-888; id., Education et culture dans l'Occident barbare aux 6e-8e siecles (Paris 1962).

 

35. The East Germans and Catholicism: The Conversion of the Sueves and Visigoths of Spain to Catholicism and the Second Flowering of Christian Antiquity in the Spanish Visigothic National Church

 

The most important pertinent literature on the Kingdoms of the Vandals and the Ostrogoths is listed in notes 1 and 3. Only the sources and literature for the history of the Visigoths and Sueves in Spain are included in the survey.

 

SOURCES

 

Introductory presentation and lists of sources: B. Sanchez Alonso, Fuentes de la historia espanola e hispano-americana, 2 vols. (Madrid, 3rd ed. 1952); id., Historia de la historio grafia espanola I (Madrid, 2nd ed. 1947); R. Grosse, has fuentes de la epoca visigoda y byzantina-. Fontes Hispaniae antiquae IX (Barcelona 1927); M. C. Diaz y Diaz, Index scriptorum latinorum medii aevi hispanorum (Salamanca 1958-59).×Comprehensive publication of sources for Spanish history: H. Florez, Espana sagrada, 52 vols. (Madrid 1747-1918); MGAuct.ant. XI (Spanish chronicles of the 5th to 7th centuries, including those of Hydatius, John of Biclar, Isidore), VI (poems of Martin of Dumio), XIV (poems and letters of Eugene II of Toledo); MGSS rer. Mer. V (Historia Wambae regis des Julian von Toledo); MGLL I (Lex Visigothorum); MGEp III (Epistolae Visigofhicae); Mansi VII-XII and PL, 84 (Spanish councils); J. N. Garvin, The Vitae ss. patrum Emeritensium. Text and translation with an introduction and commentary. The Catholic Univ. of America. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Latin Language and Literature 19 (Washington 1946); also: Acta Sanctorum. November 1. The works of the Spanish Church Fathers are in PL 37 (Valerius of Bierzo), 80 (Braulio von of Zaragoza, Taio of Zaragoza), 81-84 (Isidore of Seville, according to the edition of Arevalo), 87 (Fruc- tuosus of Br^ga), 96 (Ildefonse and Julian of Toledo). More recent editions to be cited are; J. Madoz, Epistolario de S. Braulio de Zaragoza, edicion critica. Biblioteca de antiguos escritores cristianos espanoles I (Madrid 1941); Claude W. Barlow, Martini ep. Bracarensis opera omnia, Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome, 12 (New Haven 1950); Isidore, Etymologiarum sive originum libri XX, ed. W. M. Lindsay, 2 vols. (Oxford 1911). Inscriptions: J. Vives, Inscripciones cristianas de la Espana romana y visigoda (Barcelona 1941); id., "Caracteristicas hispanas de las inscripciones visigodas," Arbor 1 (1944), 185-199.

 

LITERATURE

HANDBOOKS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HISTORY OF THE VISIGOTHIC KING DOM: R. Menendez Pidal, Historia de Espana III. Espana visigoda (Madrid 1940); S. A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (Oxford 1969); R. d'Abadal y de Vinyals, "A propos du leges visigothique en Espagne," Settimane di studio ... V. Caratteri del secolo VII in Occidente II (Spoleto 1958), 541-585; id., Del reino de Tolosa al reino de Toledo (Madrid 1960); P. Goubert, "Byzance et l'Espagne visigothique," Etudes byzantines 2 (1944), 5-78; id., "Influences byzantines sur l'Espagne visigothique," REB 4 (1946), 111-133; H. Messmer,Hispania-Idee und Gotenmythos (Zurich I960); C. Sanchez Albornoz, "Otra vez Guadalete y Cavadonga," Cuadernos de Historia de Espana 1/2 (1944), 11-114; id., "Donde y cuando murio Don Rodrigo, ultimo rey de los Godos," ibid., 3 (1945), 5-105; K. F. Stroheker, Eurich Konig der Westgoten (Stuttgart 1937); id., Germanentum und Spatantike (Zurich-Stuttgart 1965). This volume contains the following basic essays by Stroheker: "Die geschichtliche Stellung der ostgermanischen Staaten am Mittelmeer," "Leowigild," "Spanische Senatoren der spatromischen und westgotischen Zeit." "Das spanische Westgotenreich und Byzanz;" D. Claude, Geschichte der Westgoten (1970); id., "Adel, Kirche und Konigtum im Westgotenreich," in Vortrage und Forschungen, Son derband 8 (1971); id., "Gentile und territoriale Staatsideen im Westgotenreich," Fruhmittelalterliche Studien 6 (1972), 1-38.

 

LAW AND INSTITUTIONS: K. Zeumer, "Gesch. der westgotischen Gesetzgebung," NA 23 (1898), 39-112 and 571-630; 26 (1901) 91-149; Th. Melicher, Der Kampf zwischen Gesetzes-und Gewohnheitsrecht im Westgotenreich (Weimar 1930); F. S. Lear, "The Public Law in the Visigothic Code," Speculum 26 (1951), 1-23; C. Sanchez Albornoz, "Per- vivencia y crisis de la tradicion juriidica romana en la Espana goda," Settimane di studio . . . IX. 11 passaggio dallAntichita al Medio Evo in Occidente (Spoleto 1962), 128-199 (with bibliog; including the works of Garcia Gallo and Alvaro d'Ors); id., "El gobierno de las ciudades en Espana del siglo V al X," Settimane di studio . . . VI. La citta nell'alto medio evo (Spoleto 1959), 359-391; J- M. Lacarra, "Panorama de la historia urbana en la peninsula iberica desde el siglo V al X," ibid., 319-358; J. Orlandis, "El poder real y la sucesion al trono en la monarquia visigoda," Estudios visigoticos 3 (Rome-Madrid 1962); C. Sanchez Albornoz, "El aula regia y las asambleas politicas de los Godos," Cuadernos de Historia de Espana 5 (1946) 5-110; id., "El senatus visigodo," ibid., 6 (1946), 5-97; P. D. King, Law and Society in the Visigothic Kingdom (Cambridge 1972).

 

ARCHEOLOGY AND HISTORY OF ART: H. Zeiss, Die Grabfunde aus dem spanischen Westgotenreich (1934); W. Reinhart, "La tradicion visigoda en la nacimiento de Castilla," Estudios dedicados a Menendez Pidal I. (Madrid 1950), 535-554 (collection of older studies by the same author); J. Werner, "Die archaologischen Zeugnisse der Goten in Sudrussland, Ungarn, Italien und Spanien," Settimane di studio . . . III. / Got i in Oc cidente (Spoleto 1956), 127-130; P. Palol de Salellas, "Esencia del arte hispanico vis igodo; romanismo y germanismo," ibid., 65-126.

 

CHURCH HISTORY: P. B. Gams, Die Kirchengeschichte von Spanien, 3 vols. (Regensburg 1862-79, reprint ed. Graz 1956); Z. Garcia Villada, Historia eclesiastica de Espana, 3 vols. (Madrid 1929-36); P. David, Etudes historiques sur la Galice et le Portugal du 6e au 12e si'ecle (Lisbon-Paris 1947); K. Schaferdiek, Die Kirche in den Reichen der Westgoten und Suewen bis zur Errichtung der westgotischen katholischen Staatskirche (Berlin 1967); J. Vives, Concilios visigoticos e hispano-romanos (Barcelona-Madrid 1963); J. Orlandis, "El cristianismo en la Espana visigoda," Estudios visigoticos 1 (Rome-Madrid 1956), 1-14; id., "La Iglesia visigoda y los problemas de la sucesion al trono," Settimane di studio , , . VII. Le chiese nei regni dell'Europa occidentale e i loro rapporti con Roma I (Spoleto I960), 333-351; J. Lacarra, La iglesia visigoda en el siglo Vil y sus relaciones con Roma; ibid., 353-384; H. v. Schubert, Staat und Kirche in den arianischen Konigreichen und im Reiche Chlodwigs (Munich-Berlin 1912); A. K. Ziegler, Church and State in Visigothic Spain (Washington 1930); H. H. Anton, "Der Konig und die Reichskonzilien im westgoti schen Spanien," HJ 92 (1972), 257-281.

 

CONVERSION OF THE GOTHS AND PAGAN SURVIVALS: E. A. Thompson, "The Conver sion of the Visigoths to Catholicism," Nottingham Medieval Studies 4 (1960), 4-35; J. N. Hillgarth, "La conversion de los visigodos, notas criticas," Analecta sacra Tarraconensia 34 (1961), 21-46; J. Fontaine, "Conversion et culture chez les Visigoths d'Espagne," Settimane di studio . . . XIV. La conversion al cristianesimo nell'Europa dell'alto Medio Evo (Spoleto 1967), 87-147; S. MacKenna, Paganism and Pagan Survivals in Spain up to the Pali of the Visigothic Kingdom (Washington 1938).

 

CARE OF SOULS: E. Goller, "Das spanisch-westgotische Busswesen vom 6. bis 8. Jh.," RQ 37 (1929), 245-313; J. Fernandez Alonso, La cura pastoral en la Espana visigoda (Rom 1955).

 

CHURCH PROPERTY: G. Martinez Diez, El patrimonio eclesiastico en la Espana visigoda (Comillas 1959).

 

LITURGY: (Editions and literature): H. Gilson, The Mozarabic Psalter (H. Bradshaw Society 30, London 1905) (hymnarium); Dom Ferotin, "Liber ordinum," Monumenta ecclesiae liturgica 5 (Paris 1904) (rituals); "Liber Commicus, ed. por los padres de Silos," Analecta Maredsolana I (1893) (epistles and gospels); Antiphonarium Mozarabicum, ed. por los padres de Silos (Leon 1928); Dom Ferotin, "Liber sacramentorum," Monumenta ecclesiae liturgica 6 (1912) (sacramentary); G. Prado, Manual de liturgia hispanovisigotica o mozarabe (Madrid 1927); J. Perez de Urbel, Origen de los himnos mozarabos (Bordeaux 1926); C. Rojo y G. Prado, El canto mozarabe (Barcelona 1929).

 

CANON LAW: P. Fournier-G. Le Bras, Histoire des collections canoniques en Occident I (Paris 1931); G. Martinez Diez, La coleccion canonica hispana I (Madrid-Barcelona 1966).

 

MONASTICISM: I. Herwegen, Das Pactum des hl. Fructuosus von Braga (Stuttgart 1907); J. Perez de Urbel, Los monjes espanoles en la edad media (Madrid 1934); A. Mundo, "II monachesimo nell peninsula iberica fino al secolo VII," Settimane di studio . . ¶ IV. Il monachesimo nell'alto Medio Evo e la formazione delia civilta occidentale (Spoleto 1957), 73-108.

 

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM: E. Bague, Historia de la cultura espanola (Barcelona 1953); M. Diaz y Diaz, "La cultura de la Espana visigotica del siglo VII," Settimane di studio ... V. Caratteri del secolo VU in Occidente II (Spoleto 1958), 818-844; id., Anecdota visigotica (Salamanca 1959).

 

ISIDORE OF SEVILLE: J. Fontaine, Isidore de Seville et la culture classique dans l'Espagne visigothique (Paris 1959) (authoritative monograph with detailed bibliog. on Isidore and Spain in Isidore's time); Ch. H. Beeson, Isidor-Studien. Quellen und Untersuchungen zur lat. Philologie des Mittelalters IV, 2 (Munich 1913); J. L. Romero, "San Isidoro de Sevilla. Su pensamiento historico-politico y sus relaciones con la historia visigoda," Cuadernos de Historia de Espana 8 (1947), 5-71; A. Borst, "Das Bild der Gesch. in der Enzyklopadie Isidors von Sevilla," DA 22 (1966), 1-62; J. Madoz, "El primado romano en Espana en el cielo isidoriano," RET 2 (1942), 229-255; id., "El concilio de Calcedonia en S. Isidoro de Sevilla," ibid., 12 (1952), 189-204; P. Sejourne, Le dernier pere de l'Eglise. St. Isidore de Seville, son role dans l'histoire du droit canonique (Paris 1929); G. Le Bras, "Sur la part d'Isidore de Seville et des Espagnols dans l'histoire des collections canoniques," RevSR 10 (1930), 218-257; Miscellanea Isidoriana (Rome 1936); in it especially P. Sejourne, "St. Isidore et la liturgie visigothique," 221-251 and A. E. Anspach, "Das Fortleben Isidors im 7. bis 9. Jh.," 323-356; J. Fontaine, "La diffusion de l'?uvre d'Isidore de Seville dans les scriptoria helvetiques du haut moyen age," Schweizerische Zehr, fur Gesch. 12 (1962), 305-327; J. N. Hillgarth, "The East, Visigothic Spain, and the Irish," Studia Patristica 4 (Berlin 1961), 422-456; id., "Visigothic Spain and Early

Christian Ireland," Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 62, sec. C, nr. 6 (Dublin 1962), 167-194.

 

OTHER MONOGRAPHS: F. Gorres, "Leander Bischof von Sevilla und Metropolit der Kirchenprovinz Baetica," ZWTh 29 (1886), 36-50; id., "Mausona Bischof von Merida und Metropolit der Kirchenprovinz Lusitanien," ibid., 28 (1885), 326-332\Juan de Biclaro, obispo de Gerona, su vida y su obra. Introduccion, texto critico y comentarios por J. Campos (Madrid I960); J. Madoz, "Martin de Braga; el XIVo centenario de su llegada en la peninsula iberica," EE 25 (1951), 219-242; C. H. Lynch, St. Braulio Bishop of Saragossa 631-651. His life and writings (Washington 1938); Sister Athanasius Braegelmann, The Life and Writings of St. Ildefons of Toldeo, The Catholic Univ. of America Studies in Medieval History 4 (Washington 1942); F. X. Murphy, "Julian of Toledo and the Condemnation of Monothelitism in Spain," Melanges J. de Gellinck (Gembloux 1951), 361-373.

 

36. The Lombards and Italy SOURCES

 

Paulus Diaconus, Historia Longobardorum; Vita s. Barbati: MGSS rer. Lang, et Italicarum (1878). MGSS rer. Mer. II (Frapkish sources with incidental but often important ac counts for Lombard history); Poetae Latini, especially I (Tituli saec. VIII) and IV (Rhythmi aevi merovingici et carolini); C. Troya, Storia dltalia del medio evo IV (Codice diplomatico longobardo) )1852-59); L. Schiaparelli, Codice diplomatico longobardo: Fontiper la storia d'ltalia 62-63, 2 vols. (Rome 1929-33); Edictus Rothari, ed. F. Beyerle (Weimar 1947) (including the capitularies of the Lombard Kings); Jaffe; P. J. Kehr, Italia pontitificia, 1 vols. (1906fiF.); F. Schneider, Die Epitaphien der Papste (Texte zur KG des MA 6, 1933); Mansi X-XII; PL 75-79 (works of Gregory the Great); MGEp I (Register of Gregory the Great).

 

LITERATURE

 

HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS AND OF LOMBARD ITALY: L. Schmidt, Die Ostgermanen (Munich, 2nd ed. 1941); Problemi dell a civilta e dell'economia longobarda: Scritti in memoria di G. P. Bognetti (Milan 1964); Atti del I congresso internazionale di studi longobardi (Spoleto 1952); C. G. Mor, Lo Stato longobardo nel VII secolo: G. Pocchettino, I Lon gobardi nell'Italia meridionale (Caserta 1930); G. P. Bognetti, Chierici, A. de Capitani d'Arzago, Santa Maria di Castelseprio (Milan 1948); id., Milano longobardo: Storio di Milano II (Milan 1954); O. Bertolini, I Germani. Migrazioni e regni nell'Occidente gia romano: Storia universale, dir. da E. Pontieri III 1 (Milan 1965); G. Fasoli, / Longobardi in Italia (Bologna 1965).

 

LOMBARD MISSION, LOMBARD CHURCH HISTORY, ROME AND THE LOMBARDS: Cf. the works, cited above, by Bognetti, Bertolini and Fasoli. Also: G. P. Bognetti, "La rinascita cattolica dell'Occidente di fronte all'arianesimo e alio scisma," Settimane di studio . . . VII. Le chiese nei regni dell'Europa occidentale e i loro rapporti con Roma sino all'800 (Spoleto 1960), 15-41; id., "La continuity delle sedi episcopali e l'azione di Roma nel regno longobardo," ibid., 415-454; P. M. Conti, "II 'monasterium,' sacello di fondazione privata e le missioni cattoliche nell Tuscia del secolo VIII," Studi storici, Miscellanea in onore di M. Giuliana (Parma 1965), 81-102; O. Bertolini, Roma di fronte a

 

Bisanzio ed ai Longobardi (1941); id., "I papi e le relazioni politiche di Roma con i ducati longobardi di Spoleto e di Benevento," RSTI 6 (1952), 1-46; id., "Riflessi politichi delle controversie religiose con Bisanzio nelle vicende del secolo VII in Italia," Set timane di studio ... V. Caratteri del secolo VII in Occidnete II (Spoleto 1957), 733-790; id., "Le chiese longobarde dopo la conversione al cattolicesimo ed i loro rapporti con il papato," Settimane de studio . . . VII. Le Chiese nei regni dell'Europa occidentale I (Spoleto I960), 455-492.×Id., "I papi e le missioni fino alia meta del secolo VIII," Settimane di studio . . . XIV. La conversione al critianesimo nell'Europa dell'Alta Medio Evo (Spoleto 1967), 327-363; P. M. Conti, "Aquileian, Eastern and Roman Missions in the Lombard Kingdom," Misc.HistEccl III (Louvain 1970), 62-70.

 

37. The Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons and the Beginnings of the Anglo-Saxon Church

 

SOURCES

 

MGAuct. ant. XIII 1 (Gildas and Nennius); MGSS rer. Mer. VI (life of Wilfrid of York); MGEp I and II (Registrum Gregorii). Jaffe I2 (1885); Duchesne, LP (Paris, 2nd ed. 1907; reprint ed. 1955); Ch. Plummer, Venerabilis Bedae opera historica, 2 vols. (Oxford 1896; reprint ed. 1966); P. F. Jones, A Concordance to the Historia eccl. of Bede (Cam bridge, Mass. 1929); Bedae opera de temporibus, ed. Ch. W. Jones (Cambridge, Mass. 1943); W. Jaager, Vita metrica s. Cuthberti (Leipzig 1935); B. Colgrave, Two Lives of St. Cuthbert (Cambridge 1940); F. A. Gasquet, A Life of Pope Gregory the Great (Westmins ter 1904); B. Thorpe, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 2 vols., Rolls Series (1861); J. Earl- Ch. Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, ... 2 vols. (Oxford 1892, 1899); A. W. Haddan-W. Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland III ( Oxford 1871); F. Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, 3 vols. (Halle 1903-16; reprint ed. Aalen I960); F. L. Attenborough, The Laws of the Earliest English Kings (Cambridge 1922); J. M. Kemble, Codex diplomaticus aevi saxonici, 6 vols. (London 1839-48); W. de Gray Birch, Cartularium saxonicum, 3 vols. (London 1885- 93; reprint ed. 1964).

 

FOR THE CHRONOLOGY: R. L. Poole, Studies in Chronology and History (Oxford 1934).

 

LITERATURE

 

F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 2nd ed. 1950), there, pp. 679-699, a general survey of the sources; R. H. Hodgkin, History of the Anglo-Saxons, 2 vols. (Oxford, 3rd ed. 1952); P. Clemoes, The Anglo-Saxons. Studies presented to Bruce Dickins (London 1960); W. Levison, England and the Continent in the Eighth Century (Oxford 1946); M. Deanesly, The Pre-Conquest Church in England (London 1961); id., Side- Lights on the Anglo-Saxon Church (London 1962); J. Godfrey, The Church in Anglo- Saxon England (Cambridge 1962); The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle-Ages, ed. C. H. Lawrence (London 1965); cf. Th. Schiefer, Winfrid-Bonifatius und die christ liche Grundlegung Europas (Freiburg 1954), with an excellent chapter on the origin and development of the Anglo-Saxon Church to the eighth century; K. Schaferdiek, "Be kehrung und Bekehrungsgeschichte III. England und Schottland," Hoops, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde II2 (1974), 188-193.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES TO INBmDUmS AJWAr i

 

ON BEDE: his sources and the related questions €¿ the Roman beginnings of the mission: Bede, his Life, Time and Writing?, ed. A. H: Thompson (Oxford 1935); S. Brechter Die Quellen zur Angelsachsenmission Gregors d. Gr.," Beitrage zur Ge schichte des alten Manchtums und des Benediktinerwiens 21 (Munster 1941); id., "Das Apostolat des hl. Bonifatius und Gregors Missionsinstruktionen fur England," St. Bonifatius, Gedenkgabe zum 1200. Todestag (Fulda 1954), 22-33; id., "Zur Be- kehrungesgeschichte der Angelsachsen," Settimane di studio . '. . XIV. La conversione al cnstianesimo nell'Europa dell'alto medio evo (Spoleto 1967), 191-215 ×Opposite views: M. Deanesly-P. Gros jean, "The Canterbury Edition of the Answers of Pope Gregory I to St. Augusuae," JEH 10 (1959), 1-49; P. Meyvaert, "Les Responsiones de St. Gre goire a St. Augustin de Canterbery," RHE 54 (1959), 879-894; M. Deanesly, "The Capitulare Text of the Responsiones of Pope Gregory I to St. Augustine," JEH 12 (1961), 231-234,×Comprehensive: J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, "Rome and the Early En glish Church. Some questions of transmission," Settimane di studio . . . VII. Le chiese nei regni dell'Europa occidentale e i loro rapporti con Roma sino all'800, II (Spoleto I960), 519-548. F

 

- i-A. 'In

SECTION TWO

 

Inner Life of the Church to the End of the Seventh

 

Century

 

North African Christianity from the Beginning of Vandal Rule to the Muslim Invasion

SOURCES

 

Victor Vitensis, Historia persecutionis Africanae provinciae, rec. M. Petschenig: CSEL 1 (Vienna 1881); Quodvultdeus Carthag., Sermones: C1P, no. 401-412; PL Suppl. 3, 261-298; Fulgentius Ruspensis, Opera, ed. J. Fraipont: CChr 91-91A (Turnhout 1968); Ferrandus diac., Epistulae: PL 67, 887-950; Breviatio canonum: ibid., 949-962; Vita s. Fulgentii, ed. G. -G. Lapeyre (Paris 1929); Facundus Hermian., Opera: PL 67; Victor Tunnunensis, Chronicon, ed. Th. Mommsen: MGAuctant 11, 2 (Berlin 1894); Pro- copius, Bellum Vandalicum, ed. J. Haury (Leipzig 1905); ed. O. Veh (Munich 1971); Concilia Africae. A. 345-A. 525 cura et studio —. Munier: CChr 149 (Turnhout 1974).

 

LITERATURE

 

A. Audollent, "Afrique," DACL 1, 810-861; J. Mesnage, Le christianisme en Afrique. Declin et extinction (Algiers 1915); J. Ferron-G. -G. Lapeyre, "Carthage chretienne," DHGE 11 (1948), 1149-1159; A. Berthier ed al., Les vestiges du christianisme antique dans la Numidie centrale (Paris 1951).×L Schmidt, Geschichte der Vandalen (Munich, 2nd ed. 1942); Ch. Courtois, Les Vandales et l'Afrique (Paris 1955); P. Courcelle, Histoire litteraire des grandes invasions germaniques (Paris, 4th ed. 1964); H. -J. Diesner, Das Vandalenreich (Stuttgart 1966).×G. -G Lapeyre, Saint Fulgence de Ruspe (Paris 1929); H. -J. Diesner, Fulgentius von Ruspe als Theologe und Kirchenpolitiker (Stuttgart 1966).× Ch. Diehl, L'Afrique byzantine 533 -709 (Paris 1896; reprint ed. New York I964); Ch. -A. Julien, Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord I (Paris, 2nd ed. 1968).×M. Dali'Arche, Scomparsa del cristianesimo ed espansione dell'lslam nell'Africa settentrionale (Rome 1967).

 

The Papacy between Byzantium and the German Kingdoms from Hilary (4Ÿ-68) to Sergius I (687-701)

SOURCES

 

Duchesne, LP; Jaffe, I×II; The papal letters in PL 59, 65-67, 69, 72, 80, 87, 89, 96. A. Thiel, Epistolae Romanorum Pontificum I (from Hilary to Hormisdas, Breunsberg 1867);

 

Collectio Avellana, ed. O. Guenther; CSEL 35 (Vienna 1895-98). Partial editions: 18 letters of Felix II and 8 of Gelasius I in E. Schwartz, Publizistische Sammlungen zum Acacianischen Schisma =AAM 1934, 10; Gelasius, Brief gegen die Luperealien und 18 Messliturgien aus dem Sacramentarium Leonianum, ed. G. Pomares: SChr 65 (Paris 1959); 4 letters of Vigilius, ed. E. Schwartz: 5AM 1940, 2; P. M. Gasso×C. M. Batlle, Pelagii 1 epistulae quae supersunt (Montserrat 1956).×The works of Gregory the Great: PL 75-79; Registrum epistularum, ed. P. Ewald-L. M. Hartmann: MGEp. 1-2 (1891/99); G. Corti, Le lettere di Greg. M. L. 1 1-50 (Milan 1972); Dialogi, ed. U. Moricca (Rome 1924); Moralia in Job, 11. 1-2, ed. R. Gillet-A. de Gaudemaris: SChr 32 (Paris 1950: New edition in preparation); 11, 11-14, ed. A. Bogognano: SChr 212 (Paris 1974); Kommentar zum Hohenlied und Buch l der Konige, ed. P. Verbraken: CChr L 144 (1963).

 

LITERATURE

 

See chap. 15, above; also: E. Caspar, Vol. II: Das Papsttum unter byzantinischer Herrschaft (Tubingen 1933); F. X. Seppelt, Vol. II: Von Gregor d. Gr. bis zur Mitte des 11. Jh. (Munich, 2nd ed. 1955); V. Monachino, I papi nella storia I (Rome 1961); W. Ullmann, The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages (London, 3rd ed. 1970); W. H. C. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (Cambridge 1972).×W. Kissling, Das Verhaltnis zwischen Sacerdotium und Imperium von Leo I. bis Gelasius I. (Paderborn 1921); L. Knabe, Die gelasianische Zweigewaltentheorie bis zum Ende des Investiturstreites (Berlin 1936); A. K. Ziegler, "Pope Gelasius I and His Teaching on the Relation of Church and State," The Catholic Historical Review, XXVII 4, 412-437. P. Charanis, Church and State in the Later Roman Empire (491-518) (Madison 1939); W. Haacke, Die Glaubensformel des Papstes Hormisdas im acacianischen Schisma (Rome 1939), also "S. Martin," RET 1 (1941), 767-812; G. Westenburger, Der Symmachusprozess von 501 (Diss. Tubingen 1940); O Bertolini, "Roma di fronte a Bisanzio e ai Lango- bardi," Storia di Roma IX (Bologna 1941); Chalkedon II, 13-192, 491-562; E. Pon- tieri, Le invasioni barbariche e (Italia del V e VI secolo (Naples 1960); H. Rahner, Kirche und Staat im fruhen Christentum (Munich 1961); G. Pepe, II medio evo bar- barico d'ltalia (Turin 1963); F. Dvornik, Das Papsttum und der romische Primat (Stuttgart 1966); A. St. McGrade, "Two fifth-century Conceptions of Papal Primacy," Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 1 (1970), 3-45; J. Gaudemet, "Aspects de la primaute romaine du Ve au XVe siecle," Jus Can. 11 (1971), 92-134; P. Conti, Chiesa e primato nette lettere dei papi del secolo VU (Milan 1971); L. Magi, La Sede Romana nella corrispondenza degli imperatori e patriarchi bizantini, VI-VII sec. (Louvain 1972).×F. X. Dudden, Gregory the Great, 2 vols. (London 1950); H. Grisar, San Gregorio Magno (Rome 2nd ed. 1928); P. Batiffol, Saint Gregoire le Grand (Paris 1928); R. Gillet, "Greg. le Grand," DSp 6 (1967), 872-910; L. Weber, Hauptfragen der Moraltheologie Gregors d. Gr. (Fribourg 1947, 259-268 the earlier literature); D. Hofmann, Die geistige Auslegung der Schrift bei Gregor d. Gr. (Munsterschwarzach 1968); O. Giordano, L'invasione lon- gobarda e Gregorio Magno (Bari 1970).×Gregory the Great and Byzantium: E. H. Fischer: ZSKA 67 (1950), 15-144; P. Goubert, Byzanceavant l'Islam II 2 (Paris 1965), 129-177.

 

40. The Ecclesiastical Organization and the Clergy SOURCES

 

Gregory the Great,Registrum Epistolarum: MGEp, Tome 1 and 2 (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1957). Epistolae Arelatenses genuinae: MGEp III, 1-83 (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1957). H. T. Bruns,

 

Canones apostolorum et conciliorum saeculorum IV, V, VI, VII, 2 vols. (Berlin 1839). Gallic councils: CChr, Series Latina, vols. 148 and 148a, ed. C. Munier-C. de Clercq (Turn- hout 1963). Concilios visigoticos e hispano-romanos, ed. J. Vives (Barcelona-Madrid 1963). Gregorii episcopi Turonensis libri historiarum: MGSS rer. Mer. I, 1 (Hannover 1951).

 

LITERATURE

 

E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papsttums II (Tubingen 1933); G. Langgartner, Die Gallien politik der Papste im 5. u. 6. Jh. = Theophaneia 16 (Bonn 1964); H. G. J. Beck, The Pastoral Care of Souls in South-East France during the Sixth Century=AnGr 51 (Rome 1950); J. Fernandez Alonso, La cura pastoral en la Espana romanovisigoda×Publicaciones del Inst. Esp. de. Est. Ecles. A 2 (Rome 1955); W. Seston, "Note sur les origines re ligieuses des paroisses rurales," RHPhR 35 (1935), 241-254; E. Griffe, "Les paroisses rurales de la Gaule," MD 36 (1953), 33-62; id., La Gaule chretienne a l'epoque romaine, Vol. 3: La cite chretienne (Paris 1965); M. J. Delage. Introduction to: Cesaire d'Arles, Sermons au peuple, Tome 1 (SChr 175) (Paris 1971), 11-216; J. M. Lacarra, "La Iglesia visigoda en el siglo VII y sus relaciones con Roma," Settimane di studi . . . VII (Spoleto 1960), 353-384: J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, "Rome and the Early English Church: some ques tions of transmission," ibid., 519-548; G. le Bras, "Sociologie de l'eglise dans le Haut Moyen-Age," ibid., 595-611; P. Riche, Education et culture dans l'occident barbare. VIe- VIIIe siecles (Paris, 3rd ed. 1973); R. Gryson, Les origines du celibat ecclesiastique du premier au septieme siecle, Recherches et Syntheses, Histoire II (Gembloux 1970); H. F. MvAiet,L'epoque merovingienne. Essai de synthese de philologie et d'histoire (New York 1945); O. Giordano, L'invasione longobarda e Gregorio Magno (Bari 1970);J. B. Sagmuller, Die Entwicklung des Archipresbyterats und Dekanats bis zum Ende der Karolingerzeit (Tubingen 1898); P. Conte, Chiesa e Primato nelle lettere dei Papi del secolo VII (Milan 1971).

 

41. Liturgy, Care of Souls, Piety SOURCES

 

Sacramentarium Veronense, ed. L. C. Mohlberg et al,=Rerum Ecclesiasticarum Documenta, Series Maior, Fontes I (Rome 1956); Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Aeclesiae Ordinis Anni Circuli (Sacramentarium Gelasianum), ed. L. C. Mohlberg et al. = Rer um Ecclesias ticarum Documenta, Series Maior, Fontes IV (Rome I960); J. Deshusses, "Le Sacramen- taire Gregorien. Ses principales formes d'apres les plus anciens manuscrits," Spicilegium Friburgense 16 (Fribourg 1971); M. Andrieu, "Les Ordines Romani du Haut Moyen- Age," SSL, Etudes et Documents, Fasc. 11, 23, 24, 28 (Louvain 1931-56); J. Beckmann, Quellen zur Geschichte des christlichen Gottesdienstes (Gutersloh 1956); Concilia Galliae, see chap. 40, supra; Concilios Visigoticos, see chap. 40, supra; Gregor. M. Reg. Epp-, see chap. 40, supra; id., "Homiliae in Hiezechihelem Prophetam," CChr, Series Latina 142, ed. M. Adriaen (Turnhout 1971); Gregory of Tours, see chap. 40, supra; "Sancti Caesarii Arelatensis Sermones," ed. G. Morin: CChr, Series Latina 103 and 104 (Turnhout 1953); Martini Episcopi Bracarensis, Opera Omnia, ed. C. W. Barlow (New Haven 1950).

 

LITERATURE

 

A. Stuiber, Libelli Sacramentorum Romani = Theophaneia VI (Bonn 1950); A. Chavasse, Le Sacramentaire Gelasien (Vaticanus Reginensis 316) "Sacramentaire Presbyteral en

usage dans les titres romains au VIIe siecle," Bibliotheque de Theologie, Series IV. Histoire de la Theologie, vol. I (Desclee 1958); id., "Messes du Pape Vigile (537-555) dans le Sacramentaire Leonien," ELit 64 (1950), 161-213, 66 (1952) 145-219; C. Coebergh, "Le Sacramentaire Gelasien Ancien, une compilation de clercs romanisants du VIIe siecle," ALW VII, 1 (1961), 45-88; K. Gamber, "Das kampanische Messbuch als Vor laufer des Gelasianum. Ist der hl. Paulinus von Nola der Verfasser?," SE 12 (1961), 5-111; id., Sakramentartypen. Versuch einer Gruppierung der Handschriften und Frag mente bis zurJahrtausendwende. Texte und Arbeiten, Heft 49-50 (Beuron 1958); S. J. P. van Dijk, "The Urban and Papal Rites in the Seventh and Eighth-Century Rome," SE 12 (1961), 411-487; id., "Gregory the Great, Founder of the urban schola cantorum," ELit 77 (1963), 335-356; M. Vos, "A la recherche de normes pour les textes liturgiques de la messe (Ve-VIIe siecles)," RHE 69 (1974) 5-37; C. Vogel, "Les echanges litur giques entre Rome et les pays francs jusqu'a l'epoque de Charlemagne," Settimane di studio . . . VII (Spoleto I960), 185-295; id., "Le pelerinage penitentiel," Pellegrinaggi e culto dei santi in Europa fino alla la Crociata. Convegni del centro di studi sulla spiritualita medievale IV" (Todi 1963), 39-92; B. de Gaiffier, "Pellegrinaggi e culto dei santi," ibid., 9-35; A. Petrucci, "Aspetti del culto e del pellegrinaggio di S. Michele Arcangelo sul monte Gargano," ibid., 145-180; E. Delaruelle, "La spiritualite des pelerinages a Saint-Martin de Tours du Ve au Xe siecle," ibid., 199-244; A. Prandi, "La tomba di S. Pietro nei pellegrinaggi dell'eta medievale," ibid., 283-447; Beck, Fernandez Alonso, Delage, and Muller, see supra, chap. 40; E. Griffe, "A travers les paroisses rurales de la Gaule au VIe siecle," BLE 76 (1975), 3-26; B. Korting, Peregrinatio religiosa. Wallfahr ten in der Antike und das Pilgerwesen in der alten Kirche = Forschungen zur Volkskunde Heft 33-34-35 (Munster 1950); id., "Reliquienverehrung, ihre Entstehung und ihre Formen," TThZ 67 (1958), 321-334; E. Ewig, "Der Petrus- und Apostelkult im spat romischen Gallien," ZKG 71 (1960), 215-251; L. J. van der Lof, "De san Agustin a san Gregorio de Tours. Sobre la intervencion de los martires," Augustinus XIX (1974), 35-43.

 

42. Latin Monasticism from the Mid-Fifth Century to the End of the Seventh Century

 

SOURCES

 

1. The rules for monks and nuns of the period, first collected by Benedict von Aniane (t821) in his Codex Regularum, edited by L. Holste (fl661) in Rome 1661, in a new version edited by M. Brockie (Augsburg 1759, reprint ed. PL 103, 393-664), reprint Graz 1957; cf. J. Neufville, "Les editeurs des regulae Patrum, S. Benoit d'Aniane et Lukas Holste," RBen 76 (1966), 327-343. New edition in the Corpus Consuetudinum Monasticarum in preparation. Survey of the monastic rules by A. Mundo in LThK2 VII, 540-542 and C1P nos. 1838-1876. 2. Separate editions of particular rules: Regula Magistri (= RM), Ed. diplomatique par H. Vandenhoven-F. Masai-P. B. Corbett (Brus sels 1953); ed. A. de Vogue, SChr 105-107 (Paris 1964-65, bibliog. pp. 15-25); The Rule of the Master, trans. Luke Eberle (Kalamazoo 1977). Regula Benedicti (=RB): ed. C. Butler (Freiburg, 3rd ed. 1935); G. Penco (Florence 1958, with Italian trans.); R. Hanslik, CSEL 75 (Vienna I960); Ph. Schmitz (Maredsous, 2nd ed. 1962); G. M. Colombas-L. M. Sansegundo-O. M. Cunill, BAC 115 (Madrid, 2nd ed. 1968, with Gregory the Great's Dialogi lib. II); A. de Vogue-J. Neufville, SChr 181-186 (Paris 1971-72, with important introduction, vol. I, 13-410). Since 1972 there appears an annual volume: Regulete Benedicti Studia (Hildesheim), edited by B. Jaspert and E. Manning, from 2 (1973) with international bibliog. on the RB. Caesarius Arel., Regula ss. virginum, ed. G. Moria, Florpatr 34 (Bonn 1933); Reglas monasticas de la Espana visigoda (Leander, Fructuosus, Isidor) ed. J. Campos-I. Roca, BAC 321 (Madrid 1971, with Spanish trans.).

 

LITERATURE

 

GENERAL: See supra, chaps. 19-20; also: T. P. McLaughlin, Le tris ancien droit monas tique de l'Occident (Poitiers 1935), id., Il monachesimo nell'alto medio evo e lu formazione delia civilta occidentale (Spoleto 1957); G. Penco, "Il concetto di monaco e di vita monastica in Occidente nel secolo VI," StMon (1959), 7-50; J. Leclercq, "Eremitisme en Occident," Le Millenaire du Mont Athos I (1963), 161-180; Theologie de la vie monas tique (Paris 1961), 323-383; Los monjes y los estudios (Poblet 1963), 41-103; B. Steidle, "Die Einsetzung des Abtes im alten Monchtum," Erbe und Auftrag 40 (1964), 179-196; F. Weissengruber, "Weltliche Bildung der Monche (5.16. Jh.);" Rom HM 8-9 (1964-65), 13-28, 10 (1966-67), 12-42; A. Mundo, "Las reglas monasticas del siglo VI y la.'lectio divina'," StMon 9 (1967), 229-255; K. S. Frank, Fruhes Monchtum im Abendland I: Lebensnormen (Munich 1975).

 

ITALY: G. Ferrari; G. Penco (supra, chap. 20); Monographs on Benedict of Nursia: J. Chapman (London 1929); L. Salvatorelli (Hamburg 1937); J. McCann (London 1937); S. Brechter (ed.), Benedikt, Vater des Abendlandes (St. Ottilien 1947); R. Molitor (ed.), Vir Dei Benedictus (Munster 1947); I. Herwegen (Dusseldorf, 4th ed. 1951); I. Schuster (Viboldone 3rd ed. 1953); Cl. -J. Nesmy (Paris 1958); I. Herwegen, Sinn und Geist der Benediktinerregel (Einsiedeln 1944); E. v. Hippel, Die Krieger Gottes. Die Regel Benedikts als Ausdruck fruhchristlicher Gemeinschaftsbildung (Paderborn, 2nd ed. 1953); Fr. A. Blazovich, Soziologie des Monchtums und der Benediktinerregel (Vienna 1954); A. de Vogue, La communaute et l'abbe dans la Regle de .I. Benoit (Paris I960); S. Pawlowsky, Die biblischen Grundlagen der Regula Benedicti (Vienna 1965); H. Schlogl, Der hl. Benedikt als Padagoge und Psychologe (Diss. Vienna 1966).×Benedictines to 700: C. Butler, Benedic tine Monachism (London 1919); St. Hilpisch, Benediktin. Monchtum (Freiburg 1929); Ph. Schmitz, Histoire de l'ordre de Saint Benoit, 1 vols. (Maredseus 1942-1956).×D. Cap- puyns, "Cassiodore," DHGE 11, 1349-1408; A. van de Vyver, "Les Institutions de Cassiodore et sa fondation a Vivarium," RBen 53 (1941), 59-88; G. Ludwig, Cassiodor. Uber den Ursprung der abendlandischen Schule (Frankfurt 1967, Bibliog. 169ff-); R- Schlieben, Christliche Theologie und Philologie in der Spatantike. Die schulwis senschaftlichen Methoden der Psalmenexegese Cassiodors (Berlin 1974).×O. Porcel, La doc trina monastica de san Gregorio Magno y la 'Regula monachorum' (Madrid 1950); P. Rud- mann, Monchtum und kirchlicher Dienst in den Schriften Gregors d. Gr. (St. Ottilien 1956).

 

GAUL: L. Ueding, Geschichte der Klostergrundungen der fruhen Merowingerzeit (Berlin 1935); F. Prinz, Fruhes Monchtum im Frankenreich (Munich 1965); G. Holzherr, Regula Ferioli (Einsiedeln 1961); G. Moyse, "Les Origines du monachisme dans le diocese de Besancon (V-Xs.)," BEC 131 (1973), 21-104; F. Villegas, "La 'Regula monasterii Tar- natensis.' Texte, sources et datation," RBen 84 (1974), 7-65.

 

IRISH-FRANKISH MONASTICISM: H. Leclercq, "Luxeuil," DACL 9 (1930), 2722-2787; S. Columbaniopera ed. G. S. M. Walker (Dublin 1957, with bibliog. pp. LXXXII-XCII); Melanges Colombaniens (Luxeuil-Paris 1951); J. O. Caroll, "The Chronology of St. Col- umban," IThQ 24 (1957), 76-95; F. MacManus, Saint Calumban (New York 1962).

SPAIN: Perez de Urbel I (supra, chap. 20), 165-528; J. F. Alonso, La cura pastoral en la Espana romano-visigoda (Rome 1955), 463-507; A. Mundo, "Monachesimo nella penisola iberica fino al secolo VII," II monachesimo nell'alto medio evo (Spoleto 1957), 73-108; R J. Mullins, The Spiritual Life According to St. Isidore (Washington 1940); C. M. Aherne, Valerio of Bierzo (Diss. Washington 1949); M. Martins, 0 monacato de s. Fructuoso de Braga (Coimbra 1950); J. Campos, Juan de Biclaro (Madrid 1960); A. Vinayo Gonzales, San Fructuoso de Braga (Leon 1966); M. C. Diaz y Diaz, "La vida eremitica en el reino visigodo," Espana eremitica, Analecta Legerensia I (Pamplona 1970), 49-62; A. Linage Conde, "Los origenes del monacato benedictino en la peninsula iberica, T. I.," El monacato hispano prebenedicto (Leon 1973).

 

NORTH AFRICA: J. J. Gavigan (supra, chap. 20); J. Diesner, "Das Monchtum der Vandalenzeit in Afrika," Kirche und Staat im spdtrdmischen Reich (Berlin, 2nd ed. 1964), 140-148.

 

43. Tbeological Discussions SOURCES

 

Victor episcop. Vitensis, Historia persecutionis Africae provinciae, ed. M. Petschenig: CSEL 1 (1881); Fulgentius Ruspensis, Opera, ed. J. Fraipont: CChr 91 and 91 a (Turnh- out 1968); "La Cronica de Juan Biclarense," ed. P. Alvarez Rubiano: AST 16 (1943), 16-42; Vitae Patrum Emeritensium: ActaSS Novembris I, 316-339 (Paris 1887) and J. N. Garvin (Washington 1946); Caesarius Arelatensis, Sermones, ed. G. Morin: CChr 103 and 104 (2nd ed. 1953); Paulus Diaconus. Historia Langobardorum: MGSS rer. Lang. 45-187; Facundi episcopi ecclesiae Hermianensis opera omnia, ed. J. M. Clement-R. van der Plaetse: CChr 90A (1974); Rustid contra Acephalos disputatio: PL 67, 1167-1254.

 

LITERATURE

 

Hefele-Leclercq (Paris 1907ff., Hildesheim-New York, 2nd ed. 1973); H. J. Diesner, "Fulgentius von Ruspe als Theologe und Kirchenpolitiker," Arbeiten zur Theologie I, 26 (Stuttgart 1966); id., "Die Auswirkungen der Religionspolitik Thrasamunds und Hil- derichs auf Ostgoten und Byzantiner," Sitzungsber. der sachs. Akademie d. Wiss. Phil, -hist. Kl. 113, 3, Berlin (1967); M. C. Diaz y Diaz, "La cultura de la Espana visigotica del siglo VII," Settimane di Studio ... V (Spoleto 1958), 813-844; E. E. Sestan, "La composizione etnica delia societa in rapporta all o svolgimento delia civilta in Italia nel secolo VII," ibid., 649-677; O. Bertolini, "Le chiese Longobarde dopo la conversione al Cattolicesimo ed i loro rapporti con il papato," ibid., VII (i960), 455-492; G. P. Bognetti, "La continuita delle sedi episcopali e l'azione di Roma nel regno Longobardo," ibid., VII (i960), 415-454; F. J. Dolger, "Die Ehrfurchtsbezeigung beim Durchgang zwischen heidnischem Altar und christlicher Kirche. Arianische Gewissensbetaubung in der Spatantike," AuC 6 (1940-50), 69f.; K. F. Stroheker, Germanentum und Spatantike (Zurich-Stuttgart 1965); F. Kaufmann, Aus der Schule des Wulfila (Strasbourg 1899); M. Schanz-C. Hosius-G. Kruger, Geschichte der romischen Literatur IV, 2: Die Literatur des 5. ¿. 6. Jh. (Munich, 2nd ed. 1959); A. Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition (Lon don 1965); J. A. Jungmann, Liturgisches Erbe und pastorale Gegenwart (Innsbruck i960); G. G. Lapeyre, St. Fulgence de Ruspe (Paris 1929); M. J. Delage, see chapter 40; L. Duchesne, L'Eglise au 6e siecle (Paris 1925); K. Schaferdiek, Die Kirche in den Reichen der Westgoten und Suewen bis zur Errichtung der westgotischen katholischen Staatskirche = Ar beiten zur Kirchengeschichte 39 (Berlin 1967); W. Goez, "Bemerkungen zu einem Bi- schofsgrab im Dom von Grado," ZKG 70 (1959), 121-140; W. Meyer, Die Spaltung des Patriarchats Aquieleia. Abhdl. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, Phil. -Hist. Kl. n.s. 2, 6 (1898).

 

44. The Epilogue of Early Christian Latin Literature SOURCES

 

Boethius, The Theological Tractates, with an English translation, ed. H. F. Stewart-E. K. Rand (London-New York 8th ed. 1968). ×Cassiodorus, De institutione divinarum literarum: PL 70, 1105-1150. De artibus ac disciplinis liberalium litterarum: PL 70, 1149-1220; Variae and De Anima: CChr 96. Expositio Psalmorum: CChr 97 and 98. ×Gregory the Great, Epistulae: MGEp I and II, cf. supra, chap. 40; Moralia in Job: PL 75, 510-76, 782. Bocks I×II, ed. R. Gillet-A. de Gaudemaris: SChr 32 (1950); In Ezechielem: CChr 142, ed. M. Adiiaen (Turnhout 1971); Dialogi, ed. U. Moricca =Fonti per la storia d'ltalia 57 (Rome 1924); Isidori Hispalensis episcopi opera omnia: PL 81-84.

 

LITERATURE

 

V. Schurr, Die Trinitatslehre des Boethius im Lichte der skythischen Kontroversen = Forschungen zur christlichen Literatur-und Dogmengeschichte 18, 1 (Paderborn 1935); M. Nedoncelle, "Les variations de Boece sur la Personne," RevSR 29 (1955), 201-238; P. Riche, Education et Culture dans l'Occident Barbare, 6e-8e siecles (Paris 1962, 3rd ed. 1973); G. Ludwig, Cassiodor uber den Ursprung der abendlandischen Schule (Frankfurt a. M. 1967); A. Momigliano, "Cassiodorus and Italian Culture of His Time," Proceedings of the British Academy XLI, 207-245 (London 1955); R. Schlieben, Christliche Theologie und Philosophie in der Spatantike. Die schulwissenschaftlichen Methoden der Psalmenexegese Cassiodors = Arbeiten zur Kirchengeschichte 46 (Berlin 1974); F. Schneider, Rom und Romgedanke im Mittelalter (Munich 1926); F. H. Dudden, Gregory the Great. His place in History and Thought, 2 vols. (London 1905, 2nd ed. 1967); D. Hofmann, Die geistige Auslegung der Schrift bei Gregor dem Grossen = Munsterschwartzacher Studien 6 (1968); V. Recchia, Le Omelie di Gregorio Magno su Ezechiele (1-5) = Quaderni di "Vetera Chris- tianorum" 8 (Bari 1974); R. Manselli, "Gregorio Magno e la Bibbia," Settimane di Studio X (Spoleto 1963), 67-101; R. Wasselynck, "L'influence de l'exegese de S. Gregoire le Grand sur les commentaires bibliques medievaux (VIIe-XIIe s.)," RThAM 32 (1965), 157-204; G. Dufner, Die Dialoge Gregors d. Gr. im Wandel der Zeiten und Sprachen = Miscellanea Erudita XIX (Padua 1968); Cl. Dagens, "La fin des temps et l'Eglise selon S. Gregoire le Grand," RSR 68 (1970), 273-288; H. Hurten, "Gregor d. Gr. und der mittelalterliche Episkopat," ZKG 73 (1963), 16-42; V. Monachino, "Gregorio I," Bib- liotheca Sanctorum 7 (Rome 1966) col. 222-278 (bibliog.); H. J. Diesner, Isidor von Sevilla und seineZeit = Arbeiten zurTheologie 52 (Stuttgart 1973). Diesner has announced an "exhaustive study on Isidore"; A. Borst, "Das Bild der Geschichte in der Enzyk lopadie Isidors von Sevilla," DA 22 (1966), 1-62 (bibliog.); J. Fontaine, Isidore de Sevilla et la culture classique dans l'Espagne visigothique, 2 vols. (Paris 1959); M. C. Diaz y Diaz, see supra, chap. 43; Isidoriana. Estudios sobre San Isidoro de Sevilla, en el XIV Centenario de su nacimiento (Leon 1961); Fernandez Alonso, see supra, chap. 40; Duchesne, see supra, chap. 40.

INDEX

 

 

Aba Mar I, Catholicus of Persia 465-466 Abasgi 507

 

Abd-al Malik, Caliph 514 Abraam, Bishop of Karai 188, 366 Abraham, monk 366 Abraham of Kashkar 468 Acacian Schism 429-433, 434-436, 497, 616-624

 

Acacius, Bishop of Beroea 108-109 Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine 37, 49-50

 

×and the Homoians (Acacians) 49, 227 Acacius, Bishop of Melitene 109-110 Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople 425- 430, 433, 435-436, 615-617, 620, 622- 623, 636; see also Acacian Schism Acemetae monks 366, 370, 428-429, 435,

 

444, 486, 615, 731 Acephalae 731, 750 Achilleus, priest 19

 

Acholius, Bishop of Thessalonica 69-70, 252 Adalwald, Lombard King 578-580 Adrianople 48, 193 ×battle of (378) 67, 227 adultery 394-395, 397 Advent 306-307, 671-672, 685 Aedesius, brother of Frumentius 183-184 Aedesius, philosopher 52 Aegean Islands, evangelization of 193 Aemilius, Bishop of Benevento 171 Aerius of Sebaste 272

 

Aethelbert, King of Kent 586, 588-590, 598, 601

 

Aetius, Count 266, 525 Aetius, deacon 45

 

Africa, North 507, 644, 707-711, 714, 725 ×evangelization of 204-207 ×Church in 602-614 ×monasticism in 389, 691, 705-707 ×under the Vandals 602-608 ×in the Byzantine reconquest 609-612 ×evangelization of pagans 611 ×Muslim conquest of b12-614 Agape 130

 

Agapitus, Abbot of the New Laura 448

 

Agapitus I, Pope 445-446, 627-629, 639,

 

642, 739 Agathangelus, historian 482 Agatho, Pope 462, 581, 635, 665 Agaunum, Saint-Maurice d' 199 Agde, Synod of (506) 560, 645, 648-649,

 

666, 683 Agila 712

 

Agila, Visigothic King 561

 

Agilbert, Bishop of Dorchester 593, 595

 

Agilulf, Lombard King 575, 578-579, 583-

 

584, 633 Agilus 547, 549

 

Agnellus, Bishop of Ravenna 716 Agrestius, monk of Luxeuil 547 Agrippinus, Bishop of Como 578 Aidan, Abbot-Bishop of Lindisfarne 594 Aistulf, Lombard King 585 Alahis, Duke of Trent 582-583 Alans 210, 229

 

Alaric I, Visigothic King 195, 356, 361, 390

 

Alaric II, Visigothic King 525, 529, 560

 

Albinus, patrician 625

 

Alboin, Lombard King 574-577

 

Alcuin of York 599

 

Aldhelm of Malmesbury 598-599

 

Alemanni 225, 525-527, 536, 539, 541-544,

 

549, 551-552, 554 Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria 17-20, 22 Alexander, Bishop of Antioch 239, 258 Alexander, Bishop of Hierapolis 109-110 Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem 122, 329 Alexander, Bishop of Thessalonica 19 Alexander, founder of the Acemetae 366, 370, 486

 

Alexandria 16-22, 27-28, 30, 34-36, 38, 40, 44, 50, 54, 57, 60, 62, 64, 66-67, 71, 75-76, 97, 101, 105-114, 118, 121-122, 124-129, 182, 184, 220, 232, 234, 240, 242-243, 247, 251-253, 257-258, 262- 263, 266-267, 291, 302, 337, 345, 350, 358, 360, 374, 384, 391, 421-422, 425, 426, 433, 437, 442, 445, 452, 459, 469- 474, 477, 491, 496-498, 513-514, 588, 615, 623, 644, 731, 739, 750

 

×Patriarchate of 236, 291, 442

 

×Synod of (319) 18

 

×Synod of (338) 35

 

×Synod of (362) 60, 62, 95

 

×Synod of (400) 126

 

×Synod of (430) 103

 

×Synod of (c. 458) 422

 

Al-Mundir, Ghassanid Phylarch 458, 512

 

Amalaric, Visigochic King 560

 

AmaJasunrha, Ostrogothic Queen 445

 

Amandus, Bishop, Apostle of the Flemings

 

530, 539-541, 544, 547 Ambrose, Bishop of Milan 86-89, 123, 132, 134-135, 197-199, 214, 218, 222-223, 243, 254-255, 270, 273, 282, 293-294, 302, 304-305, 311, 313, 315-316, 323- 325, 327-328, 333, 375, 377-378, 392- 393, 396, 399, 408, 412, 414, 616, 672, 715, 746 ×and Valentinian II 86-87 ×and Theodosius I 86-89, 711 ×missionary activity of 197-198 Ambrosiaster 272, 302, 336 Ammianus Marcellinus 56-57, 201, 249-250 Ammonas 215 Ammun, hermit 343, 355 Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium 66, 70, 74, 372

 

Amphilochius, Bishop of Side 372 anaphora (canon) 291-293, 297 Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles 291-292 Anastasius, Bishop of Areopolis 185 Anastasius, Bishop of Pavia 581 Anastasius I, Emperor 399, 429-435, 444-

 

445, 465-466, 481, 617, 621-623 Anastasius I, Pope 126-128, 256 Anastasius II, Pope 430, 433, 620 Anastasius of Sinai 492, 495 Anatolius, Bishop of Constantinople 115-118,

 

121, 268, 421-422 Anatolius, Comes Orientis 505 anchorites 337-338, 343-346, 348-349, 354-355, 357, 360, 363-364, 383, 442, 484, 693, 697 ×communities of 343-345, 349, 354-357,

 

364, 380, 382 Ancyra 62

 

×Synod of (314) 193, 233, 278 Andrew, Apostle 241, 502, 685 Andrew of Samosata 110 Anglo-Saxons 521, 530, 579, 582, 585-601,

 

632-634, 665, 673, 685, 692, 698, 748 ×schools 599-600 ×culture 600-601 ×vernacular literature 601 Annegray, monastery 534, 701 Annesi in Pontus 368 anointing 677, 682-683 ×in baptism 677, 682 ×of the sick 682-683 Anomoios 45, 49 ×Anomoians 45-46, 61

 

Anthimus, Patriarch of Constantinople 444-

 

446, 469, 627 Antiencyclion 425 Antinoe 183, 731

 

Antioch 17,20, 34-36, 50, 53, 55, 60, 65-67, 75-76, 94, 103, 106, 108-111, 187, 189- 190, 214, 232, 240, 243, 253, 258, 262- 263, 275, 291-292, 298, 305, 308, 311, 314-315, 322, 325, 330, 360, 364, 383, 391-392, 408-410, 416, 421-423, 427, 430, 436, 442, 445, 465, 476, 485, 494, 498-499, 514, 615, 623, 750 ×patriarchate of 187-188, 236, 239, 258,

 

291, 297, 442, 464-465, 476 ×Schism of 60, 65, 68-69, 243, 251 ×school of 17, 20, 97, 107 ×Synod of (c. 268) 21 ×Synod of (c, 331) 30 ×Synod of (341) 36, 49, 227-228, 234 ×Synod of (363) 189 ×Synod of (379) 68, 96 ×Synod of (c. 418) 170 Antoninus, Emperor 400 Antoninus, Neoplatonic philosopher 182 Antoninus, subdeacon 643 Antony, monk 327, 337-338, 341, 343,

 

344-345 358, 360, 363, 374, 380, 385 Anysius, Bishop of Thessalonica 255, 257 Aphthartodocetists 446, 455, 490 Apiarius, priest 260-261 Aosta 199

 

apocrisiarius, papal 446-449, 452, 628, 630, 635

 

apocrypha 131, 135-136, 694 Apollinaris the Elder, Bishop of Laodicea 56 Apollinaris the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea 56, 65, 67

 

×Christology of 94-103, 109, 716, 729-730 Apollinarius, Patriarch of Alexandria 469 apophthegmata 344, 355-356, 485, 487, 693 Apostles' Liturgy of the East Syrians 291 Apostolic Constitutions 271, 278, 283, 335 Aqaba 185

 

Aquileia 41, 127, 165, 196-197, 200-201, 235, 238, 243, 248, 257, 265, 316, 360, 374, 379, 545-547, 549, 574-579, 582, 584, 628-629, 633, 733-735 ×Synod of (381) 199-201, 715 Arabia 478-479, 506, 509, 513, 581, 613 ×evangelization of 186-187, 189, 214, 479,

 

505-506, 510 Arbogast 543 Arbogast, Comes 225 Arabs 509-514

 

×Monophysite 458, 478-479, 506 ×see also Arabia

 

Arcadius, Emperor 89, 194, 220, 257-258, 405

 

archdeacon 271, 648, 657-658, 662-664 archpriest 651, 655, 656-658 Arethas, martyr 187 Arethas, Saint 479, 502, 506

Ariadne, Augusta 424 Arianism and Arians 16-32, 34-37, 45, 47-48, 74, 79-80, 86-87,93,98, 101, 195, 246, 251, 293, 327, 365, 374, 377, 417, 437, 496, 525, 527-528, 559, 562, 564- 565, 573-574, 578-582, 602-609, 614, 622, 625, 655, 705, 707-722, 725, 733, 736, 752 ×collapse of 59-61 ×temporary recovery 61-63 ×end of within Empire 74, 218, 251 ×and the Germans 74, 226, 229-230, 527, 559

 

×and Christology 93-95, 100 ×Visigothic Synod of (580) 713 Aripert I, Lombard King 580-581 Aristolaus 108

 

Arius 16-23, 25-26, 28-32, 80, 100-102, 123, 709

 

×doctrine of 16-23; see also Arianism and

 

Arians ×Thalia 19, 25 ×death 32, 625, 712 Ariwald, Lombard King 579-580 Aries 41, 235, 260, 266, 646, 653, 670, 687, 699

 

×vicariate of 238, 530, 561, 588-589, 622,

 

637-641, 644 ×Synod of (314) 22, 79, 197, 207, 209, 211,

 

244, 246 ×Synod of (353) 41, 82, 244, 248 ×Synod of (524) 651 Armagh 520, 522

 

Armenia 238, 257, 475, 479-481, 513

 

×evangelization of 192, 366, 480, 482

 

×Monophysite Church of 479-483

 

-literature 480, 482

 

Arnobius 336

 

Arsenius, Bishop 30

 

Arsenius, monk 356

 

art, Byzantine 504

 

Arzuges 206

 

Ascension 303-304, 648, 667 Asceterium 275

 

asceticism 322-323, 337-342, 362, 374-376,

 

386, 392-393 ×intermediate stage 343, 376, 386 Asclepas, Bishop of Gaza 37, 185 Asella 375

 

Asia Minor 193-194, 228, 458, 475, 496 ×evangelization of 191-193, 228, 508 ×role of Cappadocia in 192, 480, 517 ×monasticism in 367-369 Asketikon, Messalian writing 372 asketikon of Basil 368-369, 379 Aspar 423-424

 

Asterius, Bishop of Amaseia 312 Asterius, Bishop of Milan 593 Asterius the Sophist 312 asylum, right of 405 Atarbius 123

 

Athalaric, Ostrogothic King 626

 

Athanagild, Visigothic King 561, 577 Athanarich, Visigothic Prince 227 Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria 22-24, 30-31, 34-38, 40-46, 49, 57, 60, 62, 64, 82-85, 94, 99, 122, 196, 203-204, 207, 243-244, 247-249, 281, 303, 312, 323,

 

338, 344, 349, 374, 385 ×writings 44, 62, 338, 344, 360, 363, 374 ×and the freedom of the Church 84

×and evangelization 182-184, 214 Athens 52, 56, 64, 194-195, 220, 438, 491 Atripe, White Monastery of 353, 470 Attala, Abbot of Bobbio 579 Attila, King of the Huns 230, 269, 576 Audaeus and the Audians 226-227 Audebert, Bishop of Cambrai 540 Audofleda 525

 

Audoin, Bishop of Rouen 540 Audoin, Lombard King 574 Audomar, Bishop of Therouanne 539 Augsburg 200, 536, 544-547 Augustine, Archbishop of Canterbury 588-

 

590, 596, 598 Augustine, Bishop of Hippo 102-103, 128, 138-139, 142, 144, 148, 164-166, 171, 204-205, 213, 216, 223, 231, 258-259, 275, 280-281, 285, 296, 299, 301, 303, 306, 307-310, 313, 316-320, 323, 326,

 

331-333, 336, 360, 362, 376-378, 392, 395-396, 398-400, 403, 406, 409, 411-415, 571, 587, 602-603, 608, 614, 630, 632, 697, 700, 705, 716-717, 719, 721, 723-728, 731, 737, 740-741, 744, 746, 748-749, 751-753

×and Donatism 148-161, 602

 

×and recourse to the secular power 153-155

 

×ecclesiology of 160-161

 

×and Pelagianism 162, 164-169, 171-174

 

×and grace 174-178, 383, 723, 725-726

 

×and paganism 204-205

 

×preaching of 317-319

 

×and monasticism 386-390, 705

 

×Rule of 387-390, 691, 695-696, 699,

 

703-704, 707 ×and pagan literature 413 ×educational program of 413-414 Aurelian, Bishop of Aries 640, 691, 699 Aurelian, Emperor 304 Aurelius, Bishop of Aries 350 Aurelius, Bishop of Carthage 149-150, 153,

 

165, 205, 260, 333 auricular confession 523, 596, 689, 702 Ausonius, poet 220 Auspicius of Toul 225 Austrasia 531, 537, 542, 553, 701 Authari, Lombard King 575, 577-579, 584 Autun 40, 588, 684, 699 Auvergne, Synod of (535) 649 Auxanius, Bishop of Aries 640 Auxentius, Bishop of Milan 42, 48, 59, 87 Auxentius, hermit 486 Auxerre, parishes in 645

 

Auxerre, synods of 650-651, 658 Avars 196 Avenches 199

 

Avitus, Bishop of Vienne 526-527, 558, 621,

 

624, 638, 674, 676, 679, 711 Axum 183-184, 479

 

Babai II, Catholicus of Persia 465-466 Babai the Great, Abbot 466-467 Babgen, Catholicus of Armenia 481 Babylas, Saint 34, 55, 187, 325, 330 Bachiarius, monk 385 Bagai, Synod of (394) 146 Bajuwares (Bavarians) 545-549 Balearic Isles 210

 

baptism 14, 160, 162, 164-165, 175, 213, 272, 277, 279, 281,293-296, 303, 305, 310, 319, 331, 335, 362, 372, 393, 415, 504, 507, 524, 667, 676-677, 723 ×Donatist idea of 154 ×deferment of 294, 301 ×preparatory catechesis 294-295, 308-311 ×infant 164-165, 296, 308, 676-677 Bar Harith bar Gabala, Ghassanid King 475 Barnabas, Apostle 240 Barsaauphius, monk 487, 493 Bar-Sauma, Bishop of Nisibis 464 Barsumas, archimandrite 113-114 Basiliscus, usurper, 424-425, 615 ×Encyclion 424-425, 615 Basil, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia 64-68, 70, 73, 85-86, 94, 122, 192, 194, 214, 251, 294, 312-313, 316, 327, 339, 341, 350, 383, 399, 405, 407-408, 410, 412-414, 484, 491 ×on Church and state 85 ×Liturgy of 292, 499 ×and monasticism 367-369, 487, 695 Basilias 410

 

Basiliscus, usurper 388, 424-425, 615

 

×Encyclion 424-425, 615

 

×Antiencyclion 425

 

Bassula, deacon 104

 

Bathildis, Frankish Queen 556

 

Bavaria 577, 660, 733

 

×evangelization of 230, 544-549, 552, 554

 

×parish in 648

 

Bavo 539

 

Bede 587-588, 590, 599-601 Bedouins 478, 505, 510 Beirut 188, 236, 252

 

Belisarius, general 445-446, 452-453, 608-

 

609, 627, 707 Bellator, priest 740 Benedict I, Pope 588, 629 Benedict II, Pope 570 Benedict Biscop, Abbot 598-600, 665 Benedict of Aniane, Abbot 350, 369, 696 Benedict of Nursia, Abbot 202, 350, 389, 671, 748

 

×Rule of 350, 355, 369, 535, 598, 600, 631 691,694-696, 698-700, 702-704, 745

 

Benevento 203, 575-576, 581, 582, 584-

 

585 Benignus 542

 

Benjamin, Patriarch of Alexandria 472 Berbers 608, 613-614 Beroea 249

 

Bertha, Queen of Kent 586

 

Beryllos, Bishop of Bostra 21

 

Bethlehem 9, 123, 125-127, 306, 317, 358,

 

361,412, 484 Beziers, Synod of (356) 42, 83 Biclar 704 Bilichild 552

 

Birinus, Bishop of Dorchester 593

 

bishopric 230-233

 

×terminology 231

 

×erecting of 231

 

×duty of residence 232

 

×additional churches in 232

 

bishop 270-273, 275-276, 278-289, 297,

 

299-301, 308, 312 ×right of appeal to Rome 38-39, 232 ×responsible for evangelization 213-214 ×duty of residence 232 ×transfer to 232

 

×election of 36,281-284, 335,441, 532,619 ×judicial functions of 6, 284-285, 440 ×titles 286 ×insignia 286

 

×charitable activities of 287 ×-collegiality 287-289 ×and Justinian I 439-442 ×qualifications of 744-745 Blesilla 392 Blitmund 539

 

Bobbio 523, 535, 579-580, 582, 633, 692, 698, 702

 

Boethius 437, 625, 731-733, 736-738, 743, 756

 

×writings of 736-738 Bologna 197

 

Boniface, Apostle of Germany 552, 648, 660, 666

 

Boniface, Bishop of Carthage 608 Boniface I, Pope 240, 260-262 Boniface II, Pope 626, 639, 728 Boniface IV, Pope 579, 633, 641 Boniface V, Pope 591-592 Bonosus 377

 

Bonosus, Bishop of Nai'ssus 256

 

Bordeaux 329, 379

 

×Synod of (c. 384) 133-134, 243

 

×Synod of (662) 652

 

Bosra 479

 

Bostra 186

 

×Synod of 21

 

Braga 136, 667

 

×Synod of (561) 667-668, 731 ×Synod of (563) 657, 672 ×Synod of (565) 136 ×Synod of (572) 648, 650 ×Synod of (576) 688

 

 

Braulio, Bishop of Zaragoza 569, 673, 682,

 

704, 722 Brendan 522 Brescia 197, 578, 583 Bretwalda 586, 588 Brier Monastery (St. Catherine) 485 Britain 517-521, 523, 530, 585-601, 644, 686

 

×evangelization of 211-212

 

British Christians 517-520, 521, 585-601

 

Brunhildis, Frankish Queen 588, 641, 699,

 

713 Bulgars 508

 

Burgundians 209, 226, 229-230, 405, 524-

 

525, 527-528, 622, 638, 686 Burgundy, Kingdom of 531, 535, 541-542, 544, 547, 552, 556, 559, 649, 652, 657, 701, 711

 

Burgundofaro, Bishop of Meaux 540 Byzacena 603, 605, 607-608, 610-611, 613, 706

 

×Synod of (541) 610 Byzantine Liturgy 292-293, 499-500 Byzantium 12, 15, 75, 80, 147, 240-241,456, 463, 465, 467, 469, 471-472, 479-483, 487-488, 492, 503, 506-507, 509-511, 514, 583, 614, 616, 618, 620-621, 626, 628, 635, 664, 715, 734

 

Caecilian, Bishop of Carthage 24, 137, 157,

 

245 Caedmon 601

 

Caedwalla, King of Gwynedd 591 Caedwalla, King of Wessex 597 Caelestius 162, 164-170, 174, 259 Caesareain Cappadocia 34, 57, 62, 191-192,

 

238, 292, 313, 367-368, 410, 480 Caesarea in Palestine 50, 185, 236, 239, 439 Caesarius, Bishop of Aries 223, 350, 383, 389, 555, 560, 568, 622, 624, 626, 638-639, 646-647, 651, 666, 669-671, 673-680, 683, 691, 695, 699, 704, 710, 725-727, 736, 754, 756 ×Rule for Virgins 680, 699 ×Rule for Monks 699-700 ×doctrine of grace 725-728 Cagliari 201, 203, 607, 693 Calandion, Patriarch of Antioch 427 Callinicum 87-88, 223, 391, 457 Candidian, Bishop of Aquileia 735 Candidian, Count 104, 336 Candidus, priest 641 canon law, Byzantine 498-499 Canterbury 586, 588-589, 592-593, 595-

 

596, 598-599, 634 Cappadocia 64, 304, 322, 408, 480,484, 497, 513

 

L

 

×role in evangelization 192, 480, 517 Caprasius of Lerins 381 Capreolus, Bishop of Carthage 104, 603 Capraria 377 Capua 202 ×Synod of (391) 256 Carcassonne 209 Care of souls 673-683 ×preaching 673-676 ×Sunday rest 675 ×superstition and magic 675 ×concubinage 676 Carloman, Mayor 552 Carpentras, Synod of (527) 646 Carthage 136-138, 140-141, 152-154, 165, 204-205, 232, 234, 238, 242-243, 258, 308-309, 330, 386, 392, 603-607, 609- 611, 644, 708-709, 711 ×Religious Discussion of (411) 156-158,

 

206, 336 ×Synod of (c. 335) 137 ×Synod of (c. 348) 141 ×Synod of (390) 280 ×Synod of (397) 285 ×Synod of (401) 150, 205, 280, 408 ×Synod of (403) 151 ×Synod of (404) 152 ×Synod of (411) 165, 168 ×Synod of (416) 169, 245, 395 ×Synod of (418) 170, 259 ×Synod of (525) 706 ×Synod of (534) 609 ×Synod of (536) 706 ×Synod of (550) 610 ×Synod of (594) 611

 

Cassian, John 101-102, 177, 350, 369, 382-

 

384, 522, 690, 695, 703-705, 723 ×writings 383 Cassiciacum 412

 

Cassiodorus 572,697, 736,739-744, 751,

 

753-754, 756 ×Variae 739, 741 ×writings 739-743 ×see also Vivarium Castellum Tingitanum 137 catechesis 294-295, 298, 307-311 catechist 307-310

 

catechumen 213, 271, 297, 299, 303, 308-

 

309, 335, 361, 667, 669, 685, 710 catechumenate 290, 293-297, 299, 308, 311, 362, 676

 

Catholic Church, privileged position of 4-14, 89

 

×laws favourable to 4-6 ×official religion 68, 89 Catholicus of Armenia 238, 480-482 Catholicus of the Iberians 481 Catholicus of Persia 465-469 Cato, priest of Clermont 651 Cedd, missionary in Essex 594 Celestine I, Pope 101-106, 108, 174, 177, 215, 243, 260, 262-263, 268, 279, 288, 518, 646

 

celibacy, clerical 278-281, 653-656 Celtic monasticism 521-523, 535, 690, 692, 698

 

1JNUEA.

 

Celts, mission to the 517-523 cenobites 338, 345-354, 358-359, 364-368, 374, 382, 388, 442, 478, 484, 493, 690, 693-694, 702 ×community of Tabennisi 345 ×superiors 346-347 ×size of communities 347 ×separation from world 346 ×poverty and obedience 349, 352 ×"order" 351-353 Chalcedon 106, 116, 330, 453 ×Council of (451) 72, 77, 98, 106-107, 114-121, 185-186, 188, 190, 231, 236- 237, 239-240, 268-269, 290, 307, 351, 359, 363, 369 371, 391, 406, 417, 421- 427, 429-433, 435-437, 443-444, 447, 450-452, 454-455, 457-459, 461, 463- 464, 466, 468-469, 471-472, 475, 477, 480-481, 483-484, 486-490, 495, 497, 501, 506, 579, 615-618, 622, 624, 629 691, 709, 719-720, 729-730, 734 ×Creed of 118-121, 425, 615, 617 ×Canon 28 of 119, 121, 237, 268, 421, 423,

 

429, 433, 472, 496-497, 641 Chaldaeans, Uniate 291 Chalon, Synod of (650) 641, 681-682 Chararic, King of the Sueves 562 Charibert I, King of Paris 586 Chariton, Saint 357-358 Childebert I, Frankish King 538, 557, 629, 699

 

Childebert II, Frankish King 557, 639-640 Chilperic I, Frankish King 537, 714 Chindaswinth, Visigothic King 566 Chintila, Visigothic King 569, 685 Chlodomer 525 Chlotar I, Frankish King 699 Chlotar II, Frankish King 531-532, 539, 557-558

 

Chnodomar, King of the Alemanni 225 chorepiscopus 191, 233, 359 Chosroes I, King of Persia 438, 466 Chosroes II, King of Persia 466, 467, 476, 512

 

Christmas 304-307, 385, 416, 526, 648-649,

 

659-661, 672, 676 ×Christmas Cycle 306-307 Christology 755 ×of Arius, 17, 19 ×in the fourth century 93-97 ×in the fifth century 98-121 ×and Priscillianism 135 ×from 451 to 680 421-463 Chromatius, Bishop of Aquileia 222, 304-305 Chronographus of 354, 304 Chrysaphius 111-112, 115, 336 Chur 199, 536, 541-544 Church of the Empire 78, 89-90, 245 ×organization of 230-245, 496-499 ×clergy 269-289 ×liturgy 282-307, 499-500 ×preaching and catechesis 307-319 ×pagan survivals 331-334 ×piety 319-321

 

×asceticism 322-323

 

×cult of saints 323-328, 500-502, 749

 

×pilgrimage 328-331

 

×laity 334-337

 

×eastern monasticism 337-373, 483-488 ×western monasticism 374-393 ×and society 393-417 ×intolerance 417 ×age of Justinian I 433-456 ×literature 488-495 ×antocephalous archbishops 498 ×canon law collections 498-499 ×Byzantine discipline 502 ×Byzantine art 504

 

×Byzantine Missionary activity 504-509 ×and Islam 509-514 Church, local; see bishopric Church-state relations ×in the fourth century 78-90 ×Emperor's position 80-81 ×imperial despotism 83-85 ×subservience of bishops 83 ×Church of the Empire 89-90 ×dangers 90

 

Cilicia, evangelization of 190 Circumcellions 138-140, 144, 146-147,

 

158-159 Clarus, monk 381 Claudian, Donatist Bishop 145 Claudian, poet 220 Clement of Alexandria 278, 740 Clementine Liturgy 291 Cleph, Lombard King 575 clergy, Christian 449-289, 619, 651-658 ×Orders 270-273 ×admission to 273-277, 281-282 ×restricted to males 273 ×age requirements 273 ×moral fitness 274, 652-653 ×knowledge 275, 651-652 ×slaves and coloni 276 ×state officials 276-277 ×marriage of 277-280 ×celibacy of 277-281, 653-656 ×ordination 282-284 ×privileges of 284-287 ×titles 286 ×insignia 286

 

×collegiality of bishops 287-289 ×and Justinian I 441-443 ×Byzantine 502-503 Clermont, Synod of (535) 531 Clichy, Synod of (627) 641, 657 Clodoswintha, Lombard Queen 574 Clotilda, Frankish Queen 525, 527 Clovis, Frankish King 230, 524-528, 532, 536-537, 556-558, 566, 622, 676, 710- 711

 

Codex Argenteus 715 collegiality, episcopal 287-289 Cologne 225, 549-550, 554

 

Comasius, priest 135 Colchester 211

 

Colman, Abbot of Lindisfarne 594, 595 coloni 401, 406, 606

 

Columba the Older (Columcille) 522-523, 595-596

 

Columban (Columba the Younger) 523, 534, 539, 542-543, 547, 553, 555, 578-579, 633, 679, 698, 700-702 ×Rule of 535, 691, 696, 698, 700-702 Comgall 522, 701

 

communicatio idiomatum 102, 106, 444, 489 Como 733

 

confirmation 677, 682

 

Conon, Abbot of the Great Laura 454

 

Conon, Saint 501

 

Constance 541-544, 553-554

 

Constans I, Emperor 32-33, 37, 39-41, 82,

 

138, 152, 247 Constans II, Emperor 461-462, 482,612, 635 Constantina 137

 

Constantine I, Emperor 3-32, 59, 78-81, 87, 89, 136, 184-187, 189, 203, 209, 212-213, 216-217, 219, 221, 216-227, 244-247, 277, 283-286, 294, 304, 306, 323, 328- 329, 334, 336, 362-363, 374, 385, 395- 397, 399, 401-402, 404, 415, 442, 486, 526, 565

 

×position in the Church 4, 13-14, 81 ×favouring of the Church 4-16, 80-81 ×and heretics 6-7 ×and pagans 7-9, 11, 53, 79, 190 ×building activity 9-11, 184, 187 ×idea of the Church 11, 20, 78-81 ×and Christian morality 12 ×and the imperial cult 13-14 ×baptism and death 14-16, 22 ×legacy of 15-16 ×and Arianism 16, 19, 79 ×and Nicaea I 22-28, 79 ×and the aftermath of Nicaea I 29-32 ×and Athanasius 31 ×and Donatism 79, 136-137 ×"Donation" of 247 Constantine II, Emperor 32-33, 35, 40 Constantine IV, Emperor 462, 581, 635 Constantine, Pope 503 Constantinople 8, 11-12, 32, 49-51, 55, 63, 68, 100-101, 103, 105, 107, 111-112, 116-117, 128, 165, 192, 194, 219, 221, 227, 240, 245, 252, 257-258, 261-263, 292, 299, 304, 314-315, 322, 328, 330, 362, 366, 383, 410, 416, 422-423, 424- 426, 428-433, 435-438, 441-446, 448- 449, 452-455, 457-459, 461, 469-471, 475-477, 480, 484-486, 488, 496-497, 499, 501-502, 514, 529, 566, 608-610, 615, 618, 622-624, 626-630, 635, 642- 643, 708, 711, 724, 731, 738, 750-751 ×special rank of 75-76, 119, 240, 268 ×patriarchate of 237, 268, 291, 442, 496- 498 ×monastic ism at 370-371 ×Synod of (360) 49 ×Synod of (382) 74, 76-77 ×Synod of (426) 372 ×Synod of (448) 112-114, 120 ×Synod of (536) 469 ×Synod of (587) 629 ×Synod of (590) 481 Constantinople, First Council of (381) 23, 67-77, 94, 96, 237, 252, 421, 424, 427, 433, 472 ×canons of 75-77, 252 ×creed of 71-76, 118, 120 ×special rank of Constantinople 75-76, 237

 

252, 257, 421, 472, 496 ×as ecumenical 76-77 Constantinople, Second Council of (553) 98, 129, 454^55, 463, 529, 568, 577, 579, 610 628, 639, 730-731, 733-735, 737, 750 ×condemnation of the Three Chapters 454, 463

 

×condemnation of Origenism 129, 455 Constantinople, Third Council of (680) 22,

 

462-463, 569, 581, 634-635 Constantius, Bishop 198 Constantius, Bishop of Milan 578, 733 Constantius II, Emperor 15, 32-33, 37-44, 47-51, 55, 57, 59-61, 81-85, 141-142, 184, 186, 194, 227, 244, 248-249, 284, 416, 486 ×and paganism 33-34, 217 ×and Athanasius 35-44, 247 ×and Arianism 32, 34-50 ×and Pope Liberius 43, 46, 247-250 ×position in the Church 81-85 Constitutum, First 454 Comtitutum, Second 455 Contumeliosus, Bishop of Riez 639 Coptic Church 469-475, 483 ×ecclesiastical literature of 472 ×monasticism 473 ×missionary work of 473-475 Corbinian 548 Cordoba 564, 573 Cormons 578, 735 Cosmas Indicopleustes 468, 491 Council in Trullo (Quinisext) of (692) 271,

 

278, 502-503, 635 councils, ecclesiastical 241-245, 44\-4A2, 528

 

×provincial synod 241-242 ×interprovincial synod 242-243 ×emperor's role in 243-244, 441-442 councils, "national" 528-532, 558, 565,

 

567-568, 596 Cresconius 336 Crete 222

 

Crispus, son of Constantine I 12-13 cult of martyrs and saints 323-329, 556-557 ×grave and relics 324-331 ×cult buildings 324, 327 ×translatio 324-326 culture, late Roman, and Christianity 411-417 ×dilemma presented 411-414 ×Christian educational program 413-414 ×Christians in Pagan schools 413 ×Golden Age of the Fathers 414 ×entertainment 414-416 ×entertainers 415 ×festivals 415-416 Cuthbert of Lindisfarne 598 Cunctos Populos 68-69 Curubis 141

 

Cynegils, King of Wessex 593

 

Cynegius, Prefect 218

 

Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage 143, 160-161,

 

330, 385-386, 614, 683, 695, 716, 721 Cyprus 239-240, 359, 498 ×evangelization of 190 Cyriacus, Abbot 641

 

Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria 97-112, 114, 118, 120, 183, 223, 262-263, 405, 421, 423, 427, 450-451, 459, 472, 490, 501, 720, 728-730 732, 750 ×and Nestorius 100-171 ×the Twelve Anathemas of 103, 105, 108-

 

110, 112, 427, 444, 450, 489, 615 ×and the Council of Ephesus 104-107 ×and John of Antioch 108-110 ×Liturgy of 291

 

Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem 72, 74, 222, 239,

 

291, 298, 302, 310-311 Cyril of Scythopolis 485, 505 Cyrila, Vandal Patriarch 605-606 Cyrus of Batna 477

 

Cyrus of Phasis, Patriarch of Alexandria 459, 461-462

 

Dacia, evangelization of 195-196 Dagobert, I, Frankish King 531, 539-542,

 

544, 549, 553, 557-558 Dalmatia, evangelization of 195-196 Dalmatus, Abbot 370, 486 Damascus 188, 509, 526 Damasus I, Pope 64, 66-69, 96, 99, 131-132, 162, 201, 240, 243, 250-255, 279, 375- 376, 379, 653 ×and the Roman Primacy 250-253 ×poetry of 254 Damian, Bishop of Pavia 582 Damian, Patriarch of Alexandria 471 David of Menevia 521 deacon 270-273, 276, 278-280, 283, 286,

 

297-298, 308, 408, 646, 652-654 deaconess 273, 408

 

decretals, papal 253, 255-256, 279, 299, 530,

 

569, 619 Decretum Gelasianum 253, 694 Demetrias 162, 164, 167 Demetrius, Bishop of Alexandria 122 Demetrius, Saint 330, 502 Demophilus, Arian Bishop of Constantinople 63,69

 

Deogratias, Bishop of Carthage 604

 

Deogratias, deacon 309 Desiderius, Bishop of Vienne 681 Desiderius, Lombard King 585 Deusdedit, Archbishop of Canterbury 593 Deusdedit, Bishop of Milan 578 Dhu Nuwas, Himyarite King 506 Diadochus of Photice 373, 493 Dictinius, Bishop 135 Didymus the Blind 99, 122 diocesis 650

 

Diocletian, Emperor 187, 195-196, 235, 237,

 

246, 312, 340, 345, 401, 589 Diodorus, Bishop of Tarsus 74, 97-98, 188, 275

 

Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria 21, 122 Dionysius, Bishop of Milan 32, 197, 327 Dionysius, Pope 21 Dionysius Exiguus 600, 754 Dionysius the pseudo-Areopagite 459, 489,

 

491-492, 495 Dioscorus, antipope 626 Dioscorus, Bishop of Alexandria 111-117,

 

121, 266-268, 421-423, 497 Discipline of the Secret 296 Diospolis, Synod of (415) 168-169, 258 diptychs 258, 429, 454, 616, 620 divorce 5, 395 Docetism 372

 

Dometian, Bishop of Ancyra 448-449, Dominic, Bishop of Carthage 611 Domnus, Bishop of Antioch 111-112, 114, 359

 

Donatism 79, 136-161, 204, 206, 232, 242- 243, 245-246, 273-274, 301, 311, 336, 405, 417, 602-603, 609-611, 614, 709, 721, 745

 

×and the Circumcellions 138-140 ×forced union of 347-361, 140-141, 152 ×Golden Age 142-148 ×attempted suppression of 373-377, 145 ×decline 147-148 ×and Augustine 148-161, 296, 301 ×forced union of 405, 152 ×toleration of 410, 153 ×Religious Discussion of 411, 156-158 ×suppression of 412, 158 ×persistence 159

 

Donatus, Abbot of Servitanum 703, 705 Donatus, Bishop of Bagai 138, 140 Donatus, Bishop of Besancon 700 Donatus, Bishop of Carthage 136-138, 140- 142

 

Donatus, Proconsul 153

 

Dorotheus, Abbot 487, 493

 

Dorotheus, Bishop of Thessalonica 624

 

Dracontius, Bishop of Hermopolis Parva 182

 

Drosis, martyr 187

 

Diuma, missionary in Mercia 594

 

Dunwich 592, 595

 

Dvin, Synod of (506) 481

 

×Synod of (554) 481

 

×Synod of (648/649) 482

Earconbert, King of Kent 598 East Anglia Kingdom of 589-590, 592-593, 598

 

Easter 302, 310, 312, 351,416, 577, 588, 590

 

625, 648-649, 661, 667, 676-677, 683 ×Triduum 302 ×Season 303

 

×date of 22, 27, 522, 591, 594, 596, 599, 621 ×letters of Jerome 126; of Cyril 183 Eastern illyricum 257, 262, 264, 496, 642 economus 351, 502 Ecthesis 460-461

 

Ecumenical Patriarch 497, 629-630 Edessa 57, 188-189, 330, 337, 364-366, 410, Õ

 

430, 463-464, 475-476, 514, 739 Edwin, King of Northumbria 590-591, 594 Egbert, Archbishop of York 599 Egeria 306, 329, 357

 

Egypt 16-18, 27-28, 31, 35, 49-50, 64, 75, 110, 126, 221, 225, 234, 236-237, 242, 281, 305, 330, 337-338, 341-343, 353- 356, 358-362, 368 374, 377, 421-426, 436-437, 446, 456, 458, 466, 470-471, 473, 478, 495-497, 508, 513-514, 624, 707, 742

 

×and evangelization 181-183, 189 ×monasticism 343-360, 382, 384, 483, 485 ×and Chalcedon 421-424 ×Coptic Church 469-474, 484 Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus 57, 63, 70-71 Elias, Patriarch of Jerusalem 431-432 Eligius, Bishop of Noyon 540 Elpidius 113

 

Elvira, Synod of (306/314) 209, 235, 276, 279

 

385, 398, 653 Emesa 57, 188 Emmeram 547-548 Enaton, monastery of 471 Encratites 362 Encyclion 424-425 England, parish in 648 Ennodius, Bishop of Pavia 621-622 entertainment, late Roman 414-416 Epaon, Synod of (517) 560, 645, 652, 682,

 

710 eparchia 233

 

Ephesus 52, 105-106, 165, 191-193, 237,

 

241, 330, 425-426, 436, 508 ×Council of (431) 77, 103-108, 111-112, 114, 120, 174, 185, 190, 239, 263-264, 267-268, 288, 290-291, 328, 353, 370, 372-373, 422, 424, 426-427, 450, 463, 480, 603, 615, 731, 732 ×Council of (449) 113-115, 121, 185, 243-

 

244, 267, 421, 426, 450, 464, 614 Ephrem the Syrian 189, 342, 366, 371, 373, 410

 

Ephrem, Patriarch of Antioch 445-446, 449,

 

452, 489 Epiphania 188

 

Epiphanius, Bishop of Pavia 273 Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis 19, 72, 95,

 

123-126, 252, 272, 305, 328, 358, 371, 373

 

Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople 444 Epiphany 304-306, 385, 416 648, 667 Epistula Tractoria 170, 172, 174 Erhard, Bishop 548 Essex, Kingdom of 589-590, 594 Ethiopia 183-184, 366, 474, 506 ×Liturgy of 291

 

Eucharist 129, 142, 160, 272, 278-280, 283, 296-298, 311, 319-322, 324, 366-367, 628, 645, 648-649, 663-664, 670, 680, 683, 723

 

×Liturgy of the Word 296-297, 299, 631 ×nuptial Mass 302 ×in honour of martyrs 324 ×see also Liturgy Eucherius, Bishop of Lyon 382 Eudocia, Augusta 362, 423, 484 Eudocia, Vandal Queen 608 Eudoxius, Bishop of Antioch 49 Eudoxius, Bishop of Constantinople 61-63, 93

 

Eugene, Bishop of Carthage 204, 605-606 Eugene, Bishop of Toledo 573, 682 Eugene I, Pope 635 Eugene, usurper 202, 218, 220 Eugendus, Abbot of Condat 383 Eugippius, Abbot of Lucullanum 693-694 Eulalia of Merida, Saint 331, 570 Eulalius, antipope 261 Eulogius, Bishop of Caesarea 167 Eulogius, priest 183 Eunapius of Sardes 220, 390 Eunomians 46, 74

 

Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus 45, 252 Euphemia, Saint 330, 453, 578 Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople

 

429-430 Euphratas, Bishop of Cologne 40 Euric, Visigothic King 528, 559-560, 563 Eusebius Gallicanus 726 Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea 3-16, 18, 23-27, 29-31, 80-81, 85-87, 89, 122, 125, 193, 222, 302, 414, 505, 526, 751 Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylaeum 112-115, 267 Eusebius, Bishop of Emesa 323 Eusebius, Bishop of Vercelli 42, 123, 275,

 

281, 377-378 ×vita communis 377-378 ×monasterium clericorum 377-378 Eusebius of Cremona 126 Eusebius of Nicomedia, Bishop of Constan tinople 18, 23, 26, 29-31, 35, 37, 51, 227 ×Eusebians 35-36, 247 Eustasius, Abbot of Luxeuil 543, 547-548 Eustathius, Bishop of Antioch 23, 30, 60, 94, 122, 188

 

Eustathius, Bishop of Sebaste 63, 65, 67, 278,

 

367, 370, 405 Eustochium 361, 703 Eustorgius, Bishop of Milan 197

 

Euthymius, monk 185, 359, 483-485, 505,

 

511, 725 Eutropius 89, 336 Eutropius, Bishop of Valencia 703 Eutyches, Abbot, and Euthchians 111-115, 117, 120, 267, 370, 425, 432, 435, 622, 728-729, 737 Eutyches, missionary in the Crimea 193 Eutychian, anchorite 343 Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople 453,

 

456-457, 488 Euzoius, Bishop of Antioch 60, 62-63 Euzoius, Bishop of Tarsus 50 Evagrius, Bishop of Constantinople 63 Evagrius Ponticus 167, 215, 341, 356, 384,

 

447, 455, 492-493 evangelization of Western nations 517-601 ×Irish 518-523 ×Picts 519, 521, 523 ×Scots of Caledonia 523 ×Franks 524-558 ×Burgundians 524-558 ×Alemanni 541-543, 549, 551-552, 554 ×Bavarians 544-549 ×Main-Thuringia 550-552 ×Visigoths 565-573 ×Sueves 562-564 ×Lombards 574-585 ×Anglo-Saxons 585-601 ×charitable activities 555-556, 558 ×and the saints 556

 

×christianization of state and society 557-558

 

Evodius, Bishop 152

 

Evodius, Prefect 133

 

Exsuperius, Bishop of Toulouse 256, 384

 

Ezana, Ethiopian King 184

 

Eznik of Kolb 482

 

Fabian 717-718 Fabiola 411

 

Facundus of Hermiane 610, 728-731 Family, see marriage and family Farfa, monastery 693 Fastidiosus, priest 719 Fausta, Augusta 12-13 Faustus, Bishop of Riez 382, 723, 726 Felix (II), antipope 43, 46, 249-250 Felix, Bishop, Apostle of East Anglia 592 Felix, Bishop of Aptonga 157 Felix, Bishop of Bologna 198 Felix, Bishop of Trier 134 ×Felician Schism 134 Felix, monk 707 Felix, Numidian Bishop 706 Felix II, Pope 428-430, 433, 615-616, 636, 709

 

Felix III, Pope 626, 629, 639 Felix, Saint 330

 

Ferrandus, deacon of Carthage 610, 707 Filastrius, Bishop of Brescia 304, 744 Finnan, Abbot of Lindisfarne 594 Finnian, Saint 522

 

Firmicus Maternus 33, 216, 336 Firmilian, Bishop of Caesarea 122 Firmus, rebel 145, 147 Flavian, Bishop of Antioch 188, 372 Flavian, Bishop of Constantinople 107, 111-

 

115, 117, 120, 267 ×Epistula Dogmatica ad Flavianum, see Leo I, Pope

 

Flavian, Patriarch of Antioch 432 Flavian, Vicar 145 Florentina, nun 703 Florian, Bishop of Aries 641 foederati 226, 432, 512, 559, 574, 603 Fontaine, monastery 534, 701 Franks 226, 524-528, 554, 559, 561, 563, 574-575, 577, 584-585, 622, 630, 638, 662, 671-672, 686, 714, 725, 752 ×national church of 528, 530-558, 597, 630 ×proprietary church 533 ×monasticism 534-535 ×mission work 535-558 ×ecclesiastical organization 541-542 ×Salian 536-537

 

Fravitas, Patriarch of Constantinople 429, 617 Freising 548 Fridolin 543, 548 Frisians 540, 549, 551 Frithona, see Deusdedit, Archbishop of Can terbury

 

Fritigern, Visigothic Prince 227 Fritigil, Marcomannic Princess 198 Fructuosus, Bishop of Braga 573, 691, 704 ×Pactum 570, 704 ×Regula Mmachorum 704 Frumentius, Bishop of Axum 183-184 Fulgentius, Bishop of Ruspe 607, 647, 679, 693, 706-707, 709, 711, 716-721, 722- 726, 728, 736, 752, 756 ×doctrine of grace 723-725, 728 Furseus, Abbot of Cnobheresburg 592

 

Gadabitini 206 Gainas 89

 

Gainas, Patriarch of Alexandria 446, 456

 

×Gaianites 456, 470

 

Gaiseric, Vandal King 206, 269, 559, 602,

 

603-605, 608, 706, 708 Gall, monk 542-543 Galla Placidia, Augusta 115, 267 Gallinara 377, 380

 

Gallus, Caesar 33-34, 51-52, 55, 325 Galswintha, Frankish Queen 713 Gangra 117

 

×Synod of (340/341) 193, 278, 367 Garamantes 206, 611 Garmul, King 611

 

Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia 198-199, 212, 332

 

Gaudentius. monk 693 Gaul 59, 519, 523, 524-525, 529, 535, 553, 559, 561, 568, 584, 585-587, 592, 594,

613, 622, 628, 639, 641, 644-645, 647, 649, 652-654, 656-657, 659, 663, 666- 670, 672-673, 676-679, 682-684, 688- 689, 691-692, 710, 723, 725, 744, 752- 753

 

×evangelization of 207-209, 381, 535-541 ×monasticism in 379-384, 523, 534-535,

 

598-599, 699-703 Gaza 57, 185, 358-359, 431, 448-449, 484- 485

 

×Synod of, and Origenism 448-449 ×Synod of (542) 469

 

Gelasius, Abbot of the New Laura 448-449 Gelasius I, Pope 88, 203, 240, 270, 272, 276,

 

283, 289, 430, 433, 616-622, 741 ×pastoral activity of 619-620 ×liturgical activity of619-620,658-659,670 Gelimer, Vandal King 608 Genethlius, Bishop of Carthage 145 Gennadius, Bishop of Constantinople 729 Gennadius of Marseille 204, 348, 385, 693 Genoa 575-577, 580, 733 George, Exarch of Carthage 612 George of Cappadocia, Bishop of Alexandria

 

33, 44, 49, 51-52, 184 Georgians, evangelization of 190 Gepids 229-230, 574 Gerasa, monastery 357 Gerasimus, Abbot 359 Germain, Bishop of Auxerre 211, 518-519, 524, 556

 

Germanic peoples 225-230, 524-612 ×national churches 229, 528-558, 564-573,

 

583-585, 597 ×conversion to Arianism 230, 614 ×Conversion to Catholicism 524-598 ×laws of 556-557 Germanius, Bishop of Sirmium 45 Gerona, Synod of (517) 655, 678 Gerontius, monk 362

 

Ghassanid Arabs 458, 475, 478-479, 510,

 

512-513 Gildas 521-522 Gildo, usurper 147 Godepert, Lombard 581 Golinduch, Saint 501 Goswintha, Visigothic Queen 563 Goths 226, 229-230, 437, 520, 524-526, 556, 558-559, 561-564, 566, 568, 573, 583, 597, 725 ×evangelization of the 193-194, 214, 225- 230, 517

 

Gozbert, Duke of the Main Area 551 Grado 576, 578-579, 583, 585, 634, 733- 735

 

Gratian, Emperor 67-68, 86, 132, 415 Gratus, Bishop of Carthage 137-138, 140- 141

 

Gregory, Bishop of Elvira 223, 316 Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa 66, 74, 86, 96, 122,

 

310, 313-314, 323, 371, 373, 414, 417 Gregory, Bishop of Tours 209, 524-526, 528,

 

536, 686-688, 700, 710, 712-714, 725, 749-750, 752-753 Gregory, Exarch of Carthage 464, 612-613 Gregory I, Pope 77, 203-204, 215, 223, 307, 497, 530, 569, 571-572, 577, 579, 586- 589, 591, 596-597, 611, 629-633, 637, 640-641, 643-644, 650, 653-654, 656, 660-661, 664, 673-674, 680-681, 684, 689, 710, 713, 722, 725, 728, 733-735, 736, 744-750, 750, 753, 756 ×pastoral activity 631-633 ×writings 631, 654, 744-750 ×and monasticism 632, 692, 693-694, 695-

 

696, 698 ×and evangelization 632, 747-748 ×and the liturgy 658-660 ×exegesis 745-747 Gregory II, Pope 660, 663, 665 Gregory, Prefect 137

 

Gregory Nazianzen, Bishop of Sasima and of Constantinople 64-67, 69-73, 86, 96, 122, 194, 294, 296, 313, 341, 368, 370, 412, 414, 730, 744 Gregory of Cappadocia, Bishop of Alexandria 36, 40

 

Gregory Thaumaturgus 122 Gregory the Illuminator 192, 238, 480 Grimoald, Lombard King 581 Gundeperga, Lombard Queen 579-580 Gundobad, Burgundian King 527, 711 Gunthamund, Vandal King 606, 706 Guntram, Burgundian King 531, 557, 641

 

Hadrian I, Pope 659 Hadrian of Naples 582, 595, 599 Hadrianum 659-660, 665, 670 Hadrumetum, monastery 175 Hagia Sophia 503 handwriting, insular 600 Hatfield, Synod of (679) 597 Heden II, Duke of the Main Area 551-552 Helena, mother of Constantine I 9-10, 30, 329

 

Heliandlied 722

 

Helladius, Bishop of Caesarea 74 Helvidius 130, 336, 392 Henoticon (of 482) 426-437, 445-446, 480- 481, 615 (of 567) 457 Heraclius, Emperor 458^61, 461, 468, 471,

 

476, 481-482, 498-500, 512-513, 661 Hereford 596

 

Hermenegild, Visigothic Prince 563-564, 713-714

 

hermits 338, 343-345, 362-366, 368, 374, 377, 380, 390, 478, 493, 538, 690, 693, 702

 

×communities of 343-345, 364, 380, 486 ×island hermits 377-378, 693, 702 Hermogenes Neoplatonist philosopher 7 Heros, Bishop of Aries 167 Heruli 229-230, 507, 574

 

Hesse 552 ×parish in 648 Hexham 596

 

Hilarion, monk 185, 327, 358 Hilary 175

 

Hilary, Bishop of Aries 265, 382 Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers 42, 46, 59, 83-84, 94, 123, 212, 273, 285, 306, 380, 528, 556, 755

 

Hilary, papal legate 611 Hilary, Pope 113-114, 281, 614, 637-638 Hilda, Abbess of Whitby 596 Hilderic, Vandal King 608, 625 Himerius 219

 

Himerius, Bishop of Tarrangona 254, 385, 682

 

Himyarites 186, 506

 

Hippo 103, 148-150, 174, 275, 281, 331,

 

333, 378, 387-389, 411, 603 ×Synod of (393) 150, 353 Hippolytus 93, 330 ×Canons of 278, 677 ×Traditio Apostolica 283, 320 Hira 189, 510

 

Hispana collection 572-573, 754-755 Historia Lausiaca 344, 355 Historia Monachroum 344, 354, 363, 695 Hlothere, Bishop of Winchester 593 Holy Spirit, divinity of the 62-63, 66-74 homoios 47, 716

 

×Homoians 49, 61, 63, 65, 85-86, 227-228, 708

 

homoiousios 46, 61, 85, 755 ×Homoiousians 49, 61-63, 65, 71, 85, 249, 755

 

homoousios 21, 25-26, 36-37, 45, 62, 67,

 

73-74, 83, 249, 708-709, 755 Honoratus, Archdeacon of Salona 643 Honoratus, Bishop of Aries 381-382 Honorius, Emperor 152-153, 158, 170, 202, 205, 222, 258-259, 261-262, 399, 405, 411, 415, 496 ×Edict of Union 152-153 Honorius I, Pope 458-462, 503, 569, 580,

 

591, 593, 633-634, 660, 692, 735 Hormisdas, Pope 432, 435-437, 444, 561,

 

622-625, 627, 636-637 ×Formula Hormisdae (Regula Fidei Hormisdae)

 

435, 445, 622, 627 Horsiesi, Abbot 347-348, 351-353 Hosius, Bishop of Cordoba 20, 22, 24, 26, 29,

 

37-38, 43, 45, 84, 246, 374, 385 hospitals 409-411 Hubert 540

 

Huneric, Vandal King 571, 605-606, 706, 708

 

Huns 227, 576

 

Hyginus, Bishop of Cordoba 131-132 Hymns in the liturgy 499-500, 672 Hypatia, philosopher 182, 220 Hypatius, Bishop of Ephesus 443 Hypatius, monk 192, 369

 

Ibas, Bishop of Edessa 110,114, 119,431,444,

 

450-451, 454, 463-464, 728-731, 734 Iberians 209, 481, 484 icon 500-501, 504, 508 Idacius, Bishop of Merida 131-135 Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch 287, 340 Ildefonse, Bishop of Toledo 573, 677, 685

 

Illtud, Abbot of Calday 521 Illus 426-427

 

Illyricum, evangelization of 195 imposition of hands 676-677, 682-683 India, Thomas Tradition of 189 Ine, King of Wessex 597, 598 Ingundis, wife of Hermenegild 563, 713-714 Innocent I, Pope 135, 162, 169-170, 174, 210, 235, 239, 243, 255-259, 261-262, 270, 272, 279, 306, 376, 653 ×and disciplinary problems 256-257 ×and causae maiores 257 ×and John Chrysostom 257-258 ×and Pelagianism 258-259 Instantius, Bishop 130, 132-134 Iona 523, 594

 

Ireland, conversion of 517-523, 524, 591-

 

596, 598, 600-601, 644, 753 ×monastic character of Church 521-523 ×schools 522-523, 600-601 Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon 225, 287 Irene 375

 

Isaac, Accuser of Pope Damasus I 250 Isaac, Bishop of Geneva 199 Isaac, Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon 238 Isaac, monk 370 Isauria, evangelization of 190 Ishar Yahb, Catholicus of Persia 467 Isidore, Bishop of Pelusium 729 Isidore, Bishop of Seville 272, 568-569, 571-573, 584, 600, 645, 655, 669-672, ' 682-683, 689, 691, 693, 736, 750- 756

 

×writings of 571-573, 750-755 ×Regula Monachorum 703-704, 754 ×Etymologiae 751-752 Isidore, priest of Alexandria 124 Islam 462, 467, 469, 471-472, 476, 478-479, 482, 488, 495, 496, 508, 509, 509-514, 611-612,612-614, 707 ×condition of Christians under 513-514 Italy 507, 519, 543-544, 559-561, 572-573, 582-585, 604, 613, 618-619, 625, 627, 629-632, 635, 640, 647, 650, 661, 673, 684, 711, 714-716, 733, 735, 739, 743-744, 748 ×monasticism in 374-379, 388, 691, 693-

 

698, 702 ×Lombards in 574-585 Italy, central and southern (Italia Suburbicaria)

 

201-203, 215, 234, 243 Italy, upper, and Raetia (Italia Annonaria)

 

197-201, 234-235 Ithacius, Bishop of Ossonuba 132-134

 

 

Jacob Baradai, Bishop of Edessa 457, 470- 471,475

 

Jacobite Church 470,475-479, 483, 511-512 ×Syriac ecclesiastical literature 477-478 ×monasticism 478 Jacobus 166

 

James, Bishop of Edessa 477 James of Sarug 477 Jarrow, monastery 599, 665 Jerome 50, 58, 90, 123-128, 131, 162, 164, 167, 171, 212-213, 228, 249, 253-254, 272, 291, 312, 316, 323, 329, 336, 350, 353, 358, 360-362, 375, 377, 384-385, 392, 400, 405, 407, 412, 414, 572, 672, 703-705, 740, 746, 751 Jerusalem 9, 123-125, 127, 167, 184-185, 222, 239, 291, 297, 303, 305-306, 320, 324, 329, 339, 354Ä 358, 359, 361-362, 410, 423, 425, 427, 442, 445, 483-484, 498, 500, 513, 514, 659, 661 ×patriarchate of 185, 236, 239, 442, 498 ×Synod of (331) 193 ×Synod of (518) 186 ×Synod of (536) 186 John, Abbot of the Acemetae 370 John, Apostle 241, 330 John, archcantor at St. Peter's 665 John, Bishop of Antioch 104-105, 107-111, 239, 263

 

×and Cyril of Alexandria 108-112 John, Bishop of Aquileia 735 John, Bishop of Ilici 624, 636-637 John, Bishop of Jerusalem 123-124, 127,

 

167-168, 239 John, Bishop of Justiniana Prima 642-643, 680

 

John, Bishop of Scythopolis 489 John, Count 105-106, 336 John II, Patriarch of Alexandria 469 John II, Patriarch of Constantinople 435, 623 John, Patriarch of Jerusalem 432 John I, Pope 437, 625, 627, 737 John II, Pope 433, 444-445, 626, 629, 639 John III, Pope 629, 693 John Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople 89, 97-98, 128, 187-189, 193-194, 212, 214, 223, 228, 243, 257-258, 272, 294, 296, 308, 310, 314-315, 317-319, 322- 323, 332-333, 337, 363, 366-367, 370, 383, 392, 396, 401, 404, 408, 413-415, 496, 508, 730 ×Liturgy of 291, 499 ×as preacher 314-315 John Climacus 487, 494 John Damascene 372 John Kolobus 356 John Mandakuni 482 John Moschus 485

 

John Philoponus, philosopher 470, 490-491, 508

 

John Talaia 426-429

 

L

 

834

 

John of Asia, missionary 438, 477, 508

 

John of Biclar, Bishop of Gerona 206, 564,

 

571, 704 John of Cappadocia 438

 

John of Ephesus 192

 

John III the Almoner, Patriarch of Alexandria 471, 495

 

John the Faster, Patriarch of Constantinople

 

497, 630 John the Grammarian 489 John the Scholastic, Patriarch of Constan tinople 457, 498-499 Jonas, Abbot of Halmyrissus 194 Jovian, Emperor 60, 218 Jovinian 167, 255, 323, 392-393 Judaism 5, 27, 89, 181, 185-187, 197, 311,

 

327-328, 396, 458, 511, 677 ×and Christian evangelization 221-224, 508 ×and Justinian I 439, 508, 609 Judicatum of Sergius 459 Judicatum of Pope Vigilius 452, 454, 610

 

Julian, Bishop of Aeclanum 171-174 Julian, Bishop of Toledo 569-570, 573, 669

 

Julian, Emperor 33-34, 50-59, 60, 62, 97, 141, 157, 185-188, 212, 214, 217, 219- 220, 222, 390 ×education of 51-52 ×adherence to paganism 52-54 ×character 52

 

×attempted restoration of paganism 34,

 

54-59, 191 ×reform of paganism 54-56 ×and the teaching profession 55-56 ×resistance of pagans to reform 56 ×removal of Christians from official posts 56-57

 

×and the bishops 57-58 ×and Donatism 141-142 ×writings 58 ×death of 58-59

 

Julian of Halicarnassus 446, 455, 469-470, 490

 

Julianus Pomerius 695 Julius, Bishop of Puteoli 113 Julius I, Pope 35-38, 40-41, 84, 201, 247- 248

 

Junca, Synod of (523) 608 Justin I, Emperor 433-437, 506, 608, 623- 625

 

Justin II, Emperor 457, 477, 499, 508, 610 ×and the Monophysites 457 Justinian I, Emperor 77, 89, 192, 195, 270, 278, 357, 399, 433-456, 457, 467, 469, 475, 477, 481, 485, 487-489, 496, 498- 499, 503-504, 506-508, 558, 561, 566, 568, 571, 574, 576, 608-611, 623, 626- 628, 640, 642, 711, 715, 739, 750-751 ×and unity 437-438 ×and pagans 438-439, 474 ×and Jews 439 ×and Samaritans 439

×and heretics 439

 

×position in the Church 439-443, 451-452, 456, 628

 

×and negotiations with the Monophysites

 

443-447 ×reconquest of Italy 445-446 ×and Origen 448-449 ×and the Three Chapters 450-456, 610, 728-729

 

×and Aphthartodocetism 455-456 Justinian II, Emperor 503, 635 Justiniana Prima 498, 642-643 Justus, Bishop of Rochester 592 Justus, Vicar 191

 

Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem 117, 185, 214, 239, 359, 423, 483-484, 505

 

Kairawan 613 Kellia 354-355

 

Kent, Kingdom of 588-592, 594-595, 598 Kilian 540, 551

 

Kiurion, Catholicus of the Iberians 481 Korium 482

 

Kunincpert, Lombard King 581, 583-584

 

La Cisa Pass 575

 

Lactantius 216, 336

 

laity in the Church 334-337

 

×growing separation from clergy 334-335

 

×and election of bishop 335

 

×end of lay preaching 335

 

×lay theologians 335-336

 

×administration of Church property 336

 

×lay apostolate 336-337

 

Lakhmids 189, 510, 512

 

Lambert 540

 

Lampsacus, Synod of (c. 364) 61-62 Lantechild 525

 

Laodicea, "Synod" of 233, 332, 335 Lateran basilica 10, 22, 589, 658 ×palace 246, 621, 661 ×baptistery 264 ×schola of 664

 

×Synod of (649) 461, 580, 612, 635, 707 ×Synod of (680) 462, 635 laura 358-359, 432, 447, 449, 483-484, 511, 707

 

Latin liturgies 292, 361, 585 ×Gallican 292-293, 666-670, 722 ×Romano-African 292 ×Celtic 292

 

×Spanish 292-293, 666-668, 670, 722 ×Ambrosian 292 ×Roman 292-293, 297-298 Laurentian Schism 430, 620 Lawrence, antipope 620-621 Lawrence, Bishop of Milan 577 Lawrence, Saint 330, 556, 570 Lazarus, Bishop of Aix 167 Lazica 506-507 ×conversion of 506-507 Lea 375

 

Leander, Bishop of Seville 564, 566, 569, 571,

 

637, 691, 703, 705, 713, 745 ×"Rule" of 703

 

Lent 302-303, 309-310, 409, 660, 665,

 

670-672, 674, 676 Leo I, Emperor 410, 422-424, 615 Leo II, Emperor 424

 

Leo I, Pope 88, 101, 107, 112-121, 174, 188, 203, 223, 239-240, 243-245, 264-269, 272, 276, 279-280, 283, 289, 303, 319, 335, 376, 383, 409, 421-422, 424, 442, 497, 517-518, 586, 604, 614, 618, 622, 624, 629, 637, 653 658, 681, 730, 732 ×Epistula Dogmatica ad Vlavianum 107, 113, 115-116, 118-120, 268, 422, 424, 427, 432, 435, 480, 488, 615 ×and the liturgy 658-659 Leo II, Pope 569, 634 Leontius, Bishop of Antioch 45 Leontius, Bishop of Neapolis 495, 508 Leontius, Emperor 613 Leontius, monk of the New Laura 448 Leontius of Byzantium 489, 738 Leontius of Jerusalem (or of Byzantium) 495 Leovigild, Visigothic King 561, 563-564,

 

710-715 Leporius 102

 

Lerida, Council of (523) 709

 

Lerins 265, 275, 381-382, 588, 600, 690,

 

699, 726 Letoius, Bishop of Mytilene 372 Lex Alemannorum 557 Lex Baiuvariorum 557 Lex Ribuaria, 557

 

Lex Romana Visigothorum 560, 566, 572-573 Lex Salica 557

 

Libanius, rhetor 52, 187, 218-219, 390, 414

 

Liber Heraclidis 107

 

Liber Ordinum 669-670, 754

 

Liber Pontificalis 660

 

Liberatus, Primate of Byzacena 706

 

Liberian basilica 264, 306, 660-662, 684

 

Liberius, Pope 41-43, 45-46, 48, 61-63,

 

82-83, 201, 248-250, 252 Libya 16, 18, 28, 49, 225, 234, 236, 243, 497, 611

 

×Libyan desert 338, 354

 

Lichfield 595-596, 599

 

Licinius, Emperor 3-4, 6, 16, 187, 195

 

Liguge 380

 

Lincoln 211

 

Lindisfarne 594-596

 

Lindsey 596

 

Literature, Byzantine (451-700), 488-495 ×character 488-489 ×theologians 489-492 ×other writers 493-495 ×homiletics 494-495 ×lack of creativity 495 liturgical year 302-307, 671-672 Liturgy 289-307, 307-319, 499-500, 658- 672

 

×relationship to evangelization 289-290, 293-297

 

×differentiation between eastern and western 290-293

 

×characteristics of Oriental liturgies 291-292

 

×baptism 293-296

 

×Eucharist 296-298

 

×penance 299-301

 

×matrimony 301-302

 

×liturgical year 302-307, 499-500

 

×catechesis 307-312

 

×homily 310-319

 

×hours of prayer 320-321

 

×Byzantine 292-293, 499-500

 

×dress 666

 

Liturgy, Roman 658-668, 670, 672 Liturgy, West Syrian 291 Liturgy of James 291 Liturgy of Mark 291 Liturgy of the Hours 670-672 ×double vigil at Rome 671 Liuthard, Bishop 586 Liutprand, Lombard King 583-584 Livania 168

 

Lombards 229-230, 526, 543,574-585, 597, 629-630, 632-633, 691, 698, 715-716, 733-735, 748 ×conversion to Catholicism 715 ×national church 583-585 London 211, 521, 585, 589, 592, 595-596 Lorch 196, 536, 545 Lucian of Antioch 17, 312 Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari 42, 44, 60, 84-85 Lucius, Bishop of Alexandria 64, 391 Lupus, Bishop of Troyes 382, 525, 556 Luxeuil, monastery 523, 534-535, 539, 540- 544, 547, 549, 552, 554, 556, 558, 592, 701-702

 

Lyon 199, 207, 382-383, 531, 600, 641, 656 ×Council of (583) 649

 

Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem 23 Macarius, imperial agent 138, 140 Macarius, monk of Scete 356, 373, 704 Macarius, Patriarch of Antioch 462 Maccurites 206

 

Macedonia, evangelization of 194 Macedonians 71, 73-74, 252, 417 Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople 49, 370

 

Macedonius, Bishop of Philai 182 Macedonius, magtster officiorum 132 Macedonius, Patriarch of Constantinople

 

430-432, 435 Macellum in Cappadocia 51-52 Micon, Synod of (581) 652 Aficon, Synod of (585) 641, 652, 656, 675- 676

 

Macrobius, Bishop 141 Macrobius, Proconsul 153 Magnentius, usurper 40-41, 212 Magnus, Bishop 133

 

Magusaeans 192 Mainz 225, 550, 552 Maiuma 57, 185, 358 Malabar Christians 291, 468 Malmesbury 601 Malta 203

 

Manichaeans 130, 132, 135, 172-173, 207, 265, 338, 342, 362, 368, 443, 621, 726 Mansuetus, Bishop of Milan 581 Marathonius, Bishop of Nicomedia 63 Marathonius, monk 370 Marcella 126-127 Marcellina 375 Marcellinus, Count 165, 336 Marcellinus, Senator 153, 156-158 Marcellus, Abbot of the Acemetae 370 Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra 23, 37-38, 67, 94

 

Marcian, Emperor 115-118, 268, 422,

 

442, 565 Marcomanni 198 Marculus, Bishop 140-141 Marcus, Bishop of Arethusa 33 Marcus, Egyptian 130 Marcus, priest 151 Mardonius, teacher 51-52 Marius Mercator 162 Marius Victorinus 56, 336 Mark, Evangelist 267 Mark, Pope 201, 247 Marmoutier 380-381 marriage, clerical 277-280, 302, 367, 503 marriage and family 5, 394-401 ×Christian understanding of 394-396 ×impediments 396 ×of slaves 396-397 ×rights of father 396-400 ×equality of spouses 397-398 ×parents and children 652, 398-400 ×exposure of children 398-399 ×orphanages 399 ×adoption 399-400 ×abortion 400 ×illegitimate children 400 Marseille 175-176, 383-384, 587 Martin, Bishop of Braga 211, 562, 571, 644,

 

674-675, 677, 703 Martin, Bishop ofTours 133-134, 194, 208- 209, 214, 327, 331, ill, 380-382, 384, 524, 528, 556, 562, 571, 586, 645, 687, 700, 703

 

Martin I, Pope 461, 530, 612, 635-636 Martyrius, Abbot of Phbow 353 Martyrius, Bishop of Jerusalem 359 Marutha, Bishop of Maipherkat 325 Mary, Blessed Virgin 99-101, 106-107, 328-329, 392, 398, 444, 500-501, 556, 570, 573, 684-685, 729 Mascazel 147

 

Masona, Bishop of Merida 564

 

Masruq, Sabaean King 187

 

Master, Rule of the 691, 694-696, 743

Masuna, Berber King 611 matrimony 394-401 Mauretania 604, 613

 

Maurice, Emperor 458, 466, 481, 497, 500,

 

512, 577-578, 611, 630, 734-735, 745 Maximian, Bishop of Bagai 151-152 Mawia, Princess 186 Maxentius, Scythian monk 436 Maximian, Bishop of Constantinople 106, 108 Maximian, Bishop of Ravenna 661 Maximian, Donatist Bishop 146 ×Maximianists 146-147, 150-151, 157 Maximian, Donatist martyr 140 Maximin, monk of Chinon 381 Maximinus, Arian writer 715 Maximinus, Bishop of Trier 38 Maximinus Daia, Emperor 345 Maximus, Bishop of Emona 201 Maximus, Bishop of Trier 198 Maximus, Bishop of Turin 212, 306-307, 316, 332

 

Maximus, philosopher 51-52, 58 Maximus, uncanonical Bishop of Constan tinople 71, 75-76, 252 Maximus, usurper 132-134 Maximus Confessor 460-462, 487, 492-493, 612, 707

 

Maximus of Lerins, Bishop of Riez 382 Maziken tribe 356 Mecca 509, 511 Medina 511

 

Melania the Elder 360-361, 375 ×double monastery on Mount Olivet 360 Melania the Younger 361-362, 375, 379, 404 Melchiades, Pope 246 Meletius, Bishop of Antioch 60, 62-63, 65,

 

67-68, 70-71, 76, 96, 188 Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis 27 Melkites 470, 472, 476, 514 Mellitus, Bishop of London 592, 633 Memnon, Bishop of Ephesus 105-106 Memor, Bishop 171

 

Menas, Patriarch of Constantinople 445-446,

 

449, 452-453, 627 Menas, Saint 330, 370, 410, 473 Menuthis 182, 501 Merida 711

 

×Synod of (666) 647, 657 Merobaudes, patricius 225 Merovingian Monarchy 224, 525, 527-533, 535-537, 549, 553, 555-556, 558, 568, 588, 593, 599, 630, 640-641, 647, 650, 657-658, 659, 661, 711 ×national Church 528, 530-558, 586, 592,

 

631, 641, 657 ×proprietary church 533 ×monasticism 533-535, 690-691, 696-697,

 

699-702 ×missionary work 535-558 ×ecclesiastical organization 541-542 Mesrop 480, 482

 

Messalianism 365, 371-373, 387, 464, 493

 

Metanoia, monastery 350, 353 Methodius 122

 

metropolitan organization 207, 232-236,

 

241-243 ×provincial synod 241-242 ×interprovincial synod 242-243 Michael Caerularius, Patriarch of Constan tinople 497 Michael the Syrian 458 Milan 50, 86-88, 197, 199, 202, 232, 234- 235, 238, 243, 249, 257, 270, 333, 377- 378, 380, 393, 517, 575-578, 580-582, 584, 597, 628-629, 633, 715, 733. ×evangelizing activity of 197-198, 200 ×liturgy of 293

 

×Synod of (355) 42, 82-84, 244, 248 ×Synod of (392-393) 199 ×Synod of (451) 199 Mileve 258 ×Synod of (416) 169 ×Synod of (417) 245 Mirian, King of the Georgians 190 Mirocles, Bishop of Milan 197 missionary activity 181-230 ×dangers in the fourth century 181 ×irregular progress 212 ×method 213-224 ×lay cooperation 213-214 ×role of the state 217-221 ×pagan reaction 219-221 ×quality of results 221 ×and Judaism 221-224 ×and the Germans 225-230 Monarchianism 21 monasteries, double 360, 599 monasterium clericorum 385 Monasterium Servitanum 571, 703, 705 monasticism 410, 447, 692-694 ×background 337-342, 375 ×motives 339-341 ×Christian ideal of perfection 342 ×and evangelization 183, 188, 215 ×anti-monastic currents 390-393 ×and the hierarchy 391, 691-692 ×and lay circles 391-393 ×Nestorian 468

 

monasticism, eastern343-360, 362-368, 374,

 

470, 473, 478, 483-488, 510 ×Egyptian anchorites 343-345, 354-355, 362-363

 

×Egyptian.cenobites 338-339, 345-354, 359 ×Nitria and Scete 354-357 ×Palestine 357-360

 

×Latin monasteries in Palestine 360-362, 374

×Syria 362-367, 478 ×Greek 367-371, 486 ×Messalianism 365, 371-373 ×dangers in 486×487 monasticism, Greek 367-371, 442, 486 ×and Chalcedon 371, 486-487 ×and Justinian I 487-488 monaseicism, western 374-393, 690-707 ×Latin monasteries in Palestine, 360-362, 374

 

×Rome and Italy 375-379 ×Gaul 379-384, 534-535, 540-541, 551, 691

 

×Spain 385-386, 691, 702-705 ×North Africa 386-390, 705-707 ×Celtic 521-523, 535, 690-692, 698 ×Germany 551, 554 ×England 597-598 ×missionary activity 692 ×schools 692

 

Monoenergism 121, 459-460, 471, 476, 482, 489, 492

 

Monophysitism and Monophysites 109, 111× 114, 184, 186, 216, 290, 359, 417, 427, 430-432, 434, 438, 442-446, 451, 455, 457-460, 462-463, 464-467, 469-472, 474-477, 479, 481, 484-485, 490-492, 496, 501, 504, 506, 508, 510-511, 514, 615-617, 622, 627 Monothelitism 121, 460-463, 530, 569, 580-582, 597, 612, 633-635, 664, 707, 715

 

L

 

SAA

 

Montanists 273, 443 Montanus, Bishop of Toledo 136 Monte Gargano 581, 687 Montecassino 202, 694 Moses, Arabian Bishop 186 Moses II, Catholkus of Armenia 481 Mount Auxentius 369 Mount Sinai 357, 483, 485 Muhammad 187, 511-513 Muslims, see Islam

 

Naples 201-203, 604, 693 Narbonne 235, 561 ×Synod of (589) 651-652 Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem 343 Narsai of Edessa 365 Narses, general 577-578 Narses, head of school of Edessa 464 Nazianzus 62

 

Nectarius, Bishop of Constantinople 74 Negran 186, 189

 

Neocaesarea, Synod of (314/315) 193, 233 Nephalius 431

 

Nepos, Bishop of Arsinoe 122 Nerses III, Catholkus of Armenia 482 Nerses the Great 479

 

Nestorian Church 463-469, 473, 476, 480-

 

481, 504 ×in Persia 464-469, 481 ×missionary activity 468-469 Nestorianism 120, 186, 189, 216, 290-291, 383, 431, 436-437, 444, 465, 467-469, 481, 510-511, 514, 624, 716, 728-730, 738

 

Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople 98, 100-110, 112, 118, 120, 174, 243, 262-

 

263, 288-289, 292, 370, 425, 432, 435, 437, 450-451, 463, 622 ×and Cyril of Alexandria 100-110 Netras, Bishop of Pharan 357 Neustria 531, 556, 701 New Laura, monastery 448, 455, 484 Nicaea 116

 

×First Council of (325) 6-7, 11, 22-29, 65-66, 70-71, 74-75, 77, 79, 85, 94, 99, 100, 106, 116, 183, 185-186, 189-191, 193-194, 226, 233, 236-237, 239, 241, 246, 248, 258, 260, 269, 274, 278, 288, 302, 307, 312, 320, 417, 427, 716-719, 721

 

Nicaea-Constantinople, Creed of; see Constan tinople, Creed of Nicasius, Bishop of Reims 685 Nicene Creed 25-29, 34, 37-38, 42, 44, 48-49, 59-61, 65, 67, 69, 71-73, 78, 82-83, 94, 104-105, 111, 118, 120, 246, 251, 377, 424, 711, 713 Nicetas, Bishop of Remesiana 194-195, 695 Nicetius, Bishop of Trier 527, 574 Nicomedia 16, 18, 22, 29, 52 Nika Riot of 532-443 Nikagoras, Neoplatonist philosopher 7 Ninian, Apostle of the Picts 211, 519, 523 Nino 190 Nisibis 57, 468 ×school of 464, 466 Nitria, Desert of 126, 337, 343-344, 354-356, 361, 380, 391 Noman, Ghassanid Prince 512 Noman, Lakhmid Sheik 512 Nomocanones 499

 

Nonnus, monk of the New Laura 448 Noricum, evangelization of 196-197, 201 North African Episcopal Synod 150, 234, 238, 242, 608

 

Northumbria, Kingdom of 587, 590-591,

 

593-596, 599, 601 Notitia Antiochena 498 Notitiae Episcopatuum 498 Novatian 93, 163, 343 Novatians 6, 274, 443 Nubia 473-474 Numidia 604, 610-611

 

Oceanus 126

 

Odoacer, King of Italy 618 Olympus in Bithynia 343 Omar II, Caliph 613 Oppila 712

 

Optatus, Bishop of Mileve 143, 414 Optatus, Bishop of Thamugadi 146-148 Orange, Synod of (441) 243, 280, 405, 647, 654

 

×Synod of (529) 626, 727-728, 749 Orders, clerical 270-273 Orders, lesser 270, 302, 647 ×subdeacon 270-272, 279, 283, 651 ×acolyte 270-272, 283

 

 

×exorcist 270-271 ×porter 270

 

×lector 270, 283, 297, 646, 651 ordination 281-289 Ordines Romani 661 ×Ordo I 661-664, 666

 

XI 661

XII 671

XIV 671

XV 664

XVI 671

XXVII 661

XXXIV 661, 666

Origen 21, 78, 93, 167, 277, 316, 320, 329, 341, 356, 361, 447-449, 451, 454-455, 492-493, 740-741, 746-747 ×on the Trinity 21 ×and Christology 93, 96 ×orthodoxy of 121 -129, 256,447-449 ×Peri Archon 125, 127-128,449 ×condemned at Alexandria 126 ×new controversy of sixth century 447-449,

 

451, 454-455, 484 ×condemned in 553 129, 455 Orleans 531, 536

 

×Synod of (511) 528, 533, 560, 648, 700, 710

 

×Synod of (533) 651, 653 ×Synod of (538) 679 ×Synod of (541) 647, 649 ×Synod of (583) 652 Orosius 162, 167, 226, 414 Ostia 201-202

 

Ostrogoths 227, 229-230, 430, 433-434, 445-446, 507, 528, 559-560, 574, 618- 619, 627, 691, 715, 739-740, 743 Oswald, King of Northumbria 594 Oswivl, King of Northumbria 594, 599 Othmar, Abbot of Sankt Gallen 543

 

Pachomius, monk 338, 345-354, 383, 487 ×and cenobitism 346-354, 694 ×Pachomian "order" 339, 341, 345-346, 351-354

 

×,Rule of 345-354, 369, 383, 690, 695, 704 ×external structure 346-347 ×superiors 346-347 ×and the hierarchy 349 ×simple form 349 ×new foundations 351 ×nuns 351

 

Parian, Bishop of Barcelona 316 Padua 197, 659 Padueme 660

 

paganism, attempted restoration of 50-59 ×reforms of Julian 53-57 ×pagan resistance to reform 56 paganism, mission to 181-182, 508, 540-541, 611-612

 

paganism, suppression of 7-9, 11-12, 33-34,

 

205, 216-221 ×plundering of temples 8

 

×persistence in Rome 201-202 ×persistence in Africa 204-205 ×pagan defense 219-221 ×by Justinian I 438-439, 508, 609 pagan survivals in Christian piety 331-334 Palamon, hermit 345 Palencia 136

 

Palestine, monasticism in 357-361, 423,

 

447-449, 452, 483-485, 493 ×Latin monasteries in 360-362, 374 ×laura 358

 

Palestine, pilgrimage to 9, 184, 328-329, 368, 374

 

Palestine and evangelization 184-186, 505 Palestine and Origenism 447-449 Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis 344, 355 ×Historia Lausiaca 344, 355 Palladius, missionary Bishop in Ireland 215,

 

518-520 Pammachius 125-127, 411 Pamphilus 122, 125 Pannonia, evangelization of 196 Pantaleon 495

 

papacy, development (311-460) 245-269 ×expansion of jurisdiction 250-252, 254, 258-257

 

×appeal to 252-253, 257, 262, 267 ×universal authority 254-255, 630 ×and causae maiores 257, 260, 640 ×and Chalcedon 268-269 ×development (460-701) 614-636 Papas Eusebius 448 Paphnutius 23 parabolani 113

 

Parembolai 185, 505, 510-511 Paris 50, 530-531, 536-539 ×Synod of (c. 360) 59 ×Synod of (577) 531 ×Synod of (614) 641 parish 188, 233, 644^650, 656-657 ×school 646-647 ×visitation of 674

 

Parmenian, Bishop of Carthage 142-145 ×ecclesiology of 143 ×and Tyconius 143-144 Parthenius, Bishop of Lampsacus 193 Paschasinus, Bishop, papal legate 117 Passarion, chorepiscopus 359 Passau 200

 

Paternus, Bishop of Braga 135 patriarchate 119, 236-241, 750 ×and the liturgy 290-293 Patrick, Apostle of Ireland 211, 518-521 ×Confessio 518

 

Patroclus, Bishop of Aries 260 Paul, Apostle 11, 131, 194, 253, 278-279, 314, 330, 412, 517, 526, 654, 685-686, 741, 749 Paul, Bishop of Emesa 108 Paul, imperial agent 138, 140 Paul, Patriarch of Alexandria 447-448 Paul, Patriarch of Constantinople 612

 

Paul of Neocaesarea 23

 

Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch 20-21

 

Paul of Telia 477

 

Paul the Deacon, historian 575-576 Paula the Elder 360-361, 375 ×monasteries at Bethlehem 360-361 Paula the Younger 361 Paulinus, Bishop of Antioch 60, 65, 67, 71,

 

95-96, 252 Paulinus, Bishop of Nola 171, 208-209, 304-305, 330, 360, 379, 392, 411, 414, 748

 

Paulinus, Bishop of Trier 42, 82, 327 Paulinus, Bishop of York and Rochester

 

590-592 Paulinus, brother of Jerome 124 Paulinus, deacon of Milan 165 Pavia 579-584, 698, 716, 733 ×Synod of (698/699) 583, 735 Peada, King of Mercia 594 Penda, King of Mercia 591-592, 594 Pegasius, apostate Bishop of Ilium 54 Pelagianism 161-178, 242, 258, 264-265,

 

296, 311, 361, 518, 725-726, 741 ×condemned by Innocent I 169, 258 ×reversal of condemnation by Zosimus 170 ×condemned by Honorius 170 ×leadership of Julian of Aeclanum 171-174 Pelagius 161-170, 174, 259, 336, 722, 725, 727

 

×moral ideal 162-164

 

×notion of grace 163-169

 

Pelagius I, Pope 445-446, 449, 455, 628-

 

629, 639-640, 653, 693, 729-731 Pelagius II, Pope 497, 629, 653 penance 299-301, 303, 596, 677-682, 748 ×restrictions on penitents 300, 678-679 ×decline of public penance 679 ×private penance 679-682 penitential system, Irish 523, 596, 600, 667, 669

 

Pentapolis 234, 236, 243, 513, 584, 636

 

pentarchy 241, 442

 

Pentecost 303, 648, 667, 683

 

Perctarit, Lombard King 581, 583

 

Perpetuus, Bishop of Tours 307

 

Persia 238,476, 479-480, 505-507, 510, 661

 

×war with the Empire 58,458,460,466,471,

 

480-481, 500, 509-512, 579, 629, 707 ×effect on Monophysites 458, 466 ×Nestorian Church of 464-467 ×and Armenia 479-481 Peter, Abbot 706

 

Peter, Apostle 10, 68, 118, 247, 251-253, 255-257, 259, 263-268, 289, 330, 517, 527, 556, 568, 582, 595, 597, 685-687, 689

 

Peter, Bishop of Alexandria 64, 67-69, 75,

 

99, 251 Peter, Bishop of Sebaste 327 Peter, Bishop of the Parembolai 505 Peter, Patriarch of Alexandria 470

 

Peter, Patriarch of Antioch 240 Peter, priest 104 Peter, subdeacon 644

 

Peter Chrysologus, Bishop of Ravenna 112, 307, 318

 

Peter Mongus, Patriarch of Alexandria 425-

 

429, 435, 469, 615-617 Peter of Alexandria 122 Peter the Fuller, Patriarch of Antioch 424-

 

425, 427, 431, 435, 491, 495, 615 ×Dionysius the pseudo-Areopagite 491 Peter the Iberian, Bishop of Maiuma 359, 484 Petilian, Bishop of Cirta 152 Petra 185

 

Petornius, Abbot 351 Pettau 196 Phantasiasts 446 Pharan 485

 

Phbow, monastery 351-352 Philai 182, 474 Philibert 540

 

Philip, Bishop of Vienne 681 Philip, papal legate 263 Philippicus Bardanes, Emperor 463 Philippopolis 193 Philocalia 122 Philostorgius, historian 184 Phocas, Emperor 458, 466, 578, 630, 633, 735

 

Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople 497 Picts 211, 519, 521, 523, 524, 586, 594, 596 Pierius 122

 

piety, Christocentric 319-321, 683-689 ×the cross 320, 325, 329 ×the passion 320

 

×prayer during the day and night 320-321 ×pagan survivals in 331-334 ×decline of reception of Eucharist 683-684 ×devotion to saints 685-689 ×pilgrimage 686-688 ×relics 687-689 ×toward the deceased 689 pilgrimage 9, 184, 320, 328-331, 483, 529, 686-688 ×reasons for 331 ×hostels 409-411

 

×to Rome from England 597, 686-687

 

×penitential 687

 

×and monasticism 690, 700-702

 

Pinian 361, 404

 

Pirmin, monk 543, 551

 

Pistus, Bishop of Alexandria 35, 247

 

Pneumatomachoi 63, 70-71, 74

 

Poimen 356

 

Poitiers 380

 

Polemius, Bishop of Astorga 211, 674 Pontifex Maximus 54, 218 Posidonius, deacon 102 Possidius 149, 151, 317, 388-389 Possidius, Bishop of Calama 603 Praetextatus, Bishop of Rouen 656 Praylos, Bishop of Jerusalem 169 preaching 310-320, 646, 672-676, 744 ×genres of 311-312, 673-675 predestination 174-177, 223, 723, 725, 727, 749, 752

 

preface of Mass 297-298, 658-659, 665, 669 priest 270-276, 278-280, 283-284, 287, 297, 301-302, 308, 312, 326, 348, 366, 646, 651

 

primacy, papal 245-269, 438, 445, 496, 614-630

 

×expansion of jurisdiction 250-251, 252-

 

254, 259 ×appeal to 252-253, 262, 267 ×and causae maiores 257, 260 ×and Leo I 264-269 ×and Chalcedon 268-269 Primasius, Bishop of Hadrumetum 610 primate 234, 238

 

Primian, Bishop of Carthage 146-147, 151-

 

152, 15 6 ×opposition to 146 Primogenius, Bishop of Grado 735 Primosus, Bishop of Carthage 610 Priscillian 130, 132-136 ×execution of 133-134 Priscillianism 129-136, 210, 265, 273, 386,

 

562,573 Priscus, philosopher 51-52, 58 privileges, clerical 284-287 ×titles 286 ×insignia 286 privilegium fori 651 Proba 375

 

Proclus, Bishop of Constantinople 110-111,

 

264, 315, 480 ×Tomus of 480 Proclus, Bishop of Cyzicus 100 Proclus, Neoplatonist philosopher 220, 508 Proconsular Africa 604, 706-707 Procopius, historian 206, 433-434, 507, 574 Procopius, usurper 62 Procopius of Gaza 494 Proculus, Bishop of Marseille 261, 383 Profuturus, .Bishop of Braga 136, 562, 667,

 

682,731 Prohairesius 56

 

Proprietary church system 229, 533-535,

 

554, 570, 598, 647-648 Prosper Tiro of Aquitaine 175-177, 336, 518, 727

 

Protasius, Bishop of Aix 640 Proterius, Patriarch of Alexandria 422-423 Protogenes, priest 183 province, ecclesiastical 231, 233-236, 241 ×provincial synod 241-242 ×interprovincial synod 242-243 Prudentius, poet 331, 414, 570 Psalms, New 142 Pulcheria, Augusta 115-116 purgatory 748

 

Pyrrhus, Patriarch of Constantinople 461- 462, 612

 

Qennesrin, Jacobite school of 477 Qumran 338, 342, 358 Quodvultdeus, Bishop 604

 

Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa 110, 364-365, 463 Radbod, Duke of Frisia 551 Radegundis, Frankish Queen 699 Ragnachar, Bishop of Augst 543 Ravenna 147, 152-153, 170, 174, 197, 199, 238, 243, 306, 437, 461, 517, 575, 579, 584-585, 603, 620, 625, 636, 646, 698, 734-735

 

×Exarchate of 575, 579, 584, 630-631 rebaptism 137, 143, 145, 150, 152, 159, 255,

 

405, 564, 708-709,713-714 Recared, Visigothic King 563, 565-567,

 

569-570, 637, 703, 711, 713, 715 Recceswinth, Visigothic King 566, 573 Rechiar, King of the Sueves 226 refrigerium 332-333 ×christianized observance 332-333 Regensburg 200, 544, 547-548, 554 Regula Ferioli 691 Regula Macarii 690, 699 Regula Monasterii Tarnatensis 390, 691, 699 Regula Orientalis 691, 693 Regula Pauli et Stephani 390, 691 Regula Quattuor Patrum 690 Reichenau 543, 554 Reims 526, 530-531, 537, 553 relics of saints 324-326 Remaclus 540

 

Remigius, Bishop of Reims 524, 526-527,

 

556, 558 Renatus, priest 113

 

Reparatus, Bishop of Carthage 609-610 Restitutus, Bishop of Carthage 48, 141, 145 Restitutus, priest 151 Rhodanius, Bishop of Toulouse 42, 83 Richarius 539 Ricimer 614

 

Riez, Synod of (439) 243 Rimini, Creed of 49, 61, 63, 83, 228, 249, 708, 716

 

×see also Seleucia-Rimini, Double Synod of Ripon 595

 

Robber Synod; see Ephesus, Council of (449) Rochester 589, 592, 595, 598 Rodoald, Lombard King 580 Rogatus, Bishop of Cartenna 144 ×Rogatists 145

 

Roman Liturgy 292-293, 297-298 Romanus, Comes Africae 144 Romanus, founder of Condat 383 Romanus, martyr 187 Romanus the Melode 500-501 Rome 10-12, 19, 22, 34-36, 39, 45-46, 48, 56, 60, 62, 66, 68, 75-76, 86, 96, 99, 101-103, 119, 123-128, 132, 137, 141, 144-145, 162, 164, 169-170, 198, 201- 202, 210, 215, 217-218, 220, 231-236, 238-241, 243-247, 249-271, 279, 288,

292-293, 295, 303-304, 306-307, 322, 325, 330, 333, 356, 360, 374-377, 383, 392, 400, 409, 410, 421-423, 426, 428- 430, 432, 434-436, 438, 442-443, 446, 452, 455, 461, 472, 496-497, 503, 517, 521, 527, 529, 548, 556, 560-561, 568- 570, 572, 575, 577, 580, 582-587, 589, 591-592, 594-595, 597-598, 600, 604, 606-607, 609, 611-612, 614-617, 620- 629, 633-636, 638-642, 644, 646, 654, 659-661, 665-673, 676-678, 681-682, 684, 686-687, 689, 694-695, 698, 707, 709, 716, 727, 729-730, 734, 738-739, 744, 748, 750-751, 753 ×patriarchate of 236-237, 240-241, 292 ×monastic life in 374-375 ×primacy of 245-269, 614-629 ×Synod of (313) 197 ×Synod of (340/341) 36, 243, 247 ×Synod of (353) 243 ×Synod of (368) 243, 251 ×Synod of (377) 96, 99, 243 ×Synod of (378) 250, 252 ×Synod of (381) 202 ×Synod of (382) 243, 253 ×Synod of (390) 255, 393 ×Synod of (430) 102-103 ×Synod of (449) 115 ×Synod of (499) 620 ×Synod of (502) 621 ×Synod of (531) 626, 642 ×Synod of (610) 633 Romuald I, Duke of Benevento 582 Rothari, Lombard King 575, 579-580, 715 Rouen 208, 381, 540 Rufinus, imperial minister 369 ×Rufiniani, monastery 369 Rufinus of Aquileia 123-128, 354, 360-361,

 

369, 379, 412, 572 Rufus, Bishop 133

 

Rufus, Bishop of Thessalonica 257, 262 Rugii 229-230

 

Rupert, Bishop of Worms 548 Rusafa 479, 510

 

Rusticus, Bishop of Narbonne 384 Rusticus, deacon 731-733 737-738 Rutilius Namatianus, poet 220, 377, 390

 

Sabas, Saint 359, 432, 447-448, 483-485,

 

511, 707 SabeUius 252, 372, 714 Saben 200, 536, 546 Sabinus, Bishop of Piacenza 198 sacramentary 298, 652, 658, 661, 665, 668 ×Gelasianutn 659-661, 665, 667, 672, 678 ×Gregorianum 659-660, 665, 672, 678

 

Hadrianum 659-660, 665, 670, 684

 

Paduense 660, 665, 684

 

×Leonianum 620, 658-659, 665, 667-668 Veronese 659, 684

 

Saint-Jean de Losne, Synod of (673) 649, 652, 657

 

Saint Martin of Asan 703 Saint Peter's, see Vatican basilica Saint-Victor de Marseille 101, 383 saints, Byzantine cult of 501-503 Sallust, Bishop of Seville 624, 636 Salona 195-196 Salonius, Bishop of Geneva 382 Salvian, Bishop 130, 132 Salvian, priest of Marseille 382, 402, 406 Salzburg 545, 548, 554 Samaritans 439 Samson of Dol 521 Sankt Gallen 542-544, 554, 672 Sant' Andrea al Monte Celio 588, 629 Santa Maria Maggiore see Liberian basilica Santiago de Compostela 687 Sapaudus, Bishop of Aries 639 Sarapeion of Alexandria 34, 182, 422 Sassanid Dynasty 189, 466-467 Saturninus, Bishop of Aries 48, 59 Saxons 549

 

Scete 343-344, 354, 357, 383

 

Scheneset, monastery 351-352

 

Schenute, Abbot of Atripe 183, 353,470, 473

 

×character 353

 

schobt cantorum 275, 662, 664

 

schools, Anglo-Saxon 599-600

 

Sciri 229-230

 

Scythian monks 436, 489, 624

 

Sebastian, Count 708

 

Secundus, Abbot of Nano 578

 

Secundus, Bishop 18, 26

 

Seleucia-Ctesiphon 238, 476

 

×school of 466

 

×Synod of (410) 233, 238

 

×Synod of (424) 238-239

 

Seleucia-in-lsauria 190, 330

 

Seleucia-Rimini, Double Synod of 47-50, 59,

 

83, 141, 145, 211, 249, 251, 716, 718 Selsey 596

 

Semipelagianism 176-177, 626, 638, 722-

 

728, 736, 749 Serapio, Alemannic Prince 225 Serapion, Abbot 344 Serapion, Bishop of Thmuis 291 Serdica 195

 

×Synod of (342/343) 37-40, 82, 84, 137-

 

138, 191, 197, 248, 272, 721 Serenus, Bishop of Marseille 688 Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople 458-460,

 

461-462, 634 Sergius I, Pope 503, 635, 664, 684 Sergius, Saint 330

 

Sergius of Telia, Patriarch of Antioch 475 Severian, Bishop of Gabala 328 Severinus, Saint 197, 200, 693 Severus, Bishop 222 Severus, Bishop of Aquileia 734-735 Severus, Bishop of Thubursicu 151 Severus, Bishop of Trier 524 Severus, Patriarch of Antioch 430-432, 435, 437, 443-444, 446, 451, 456-457, 469-

 

470, 475, 477, 480, 484, 490-492, 495, 624, 627 Severus, Septimius, Emperor 400 Seville 563, 567, 624, 704-705, 754 ×Synod of (619) 682

 

×papal vicariate of 561, 568, 624, 636-637

 

Side, Synod of (r. 390) 372

 

Sidonius Apollinaris, Bishop of Clermont 223,

 

650,652 Siffred, Bishop 681 Sigebert I, Frankish King 701 Sigebert III, Frankish King 530 Sigebert, King of East Anglia 592 Sigebert, King of Essex 594 Sigismund, Burgundian King 527, 622, 625,

 

638, 686, 711 Silvanus, Bishop of Tarsus 49 Silvanus, Frankish Christian 225 Silvanus, monk 357 Silverius, Pope 452

 

Silvester I, Pope 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 201, 246-247

 

Simeon Stylites 108-109, 330, 363-364, 366, 485

 

Simeon Stylites the Younger 485 Simeon of Edessa 495 Simeon of Mesopotamia 372-373 Simplician, Bishop of Milan 126 Simplicius, Bishop of Autun 209 Simplicius, Pope 428, 615, 636 Sindered, Bishop of Toledo 570 Siricius, Pope 134, 202, 210, 254-255, 264, 270, 272, 279-280, 302, 376, 379, 385, 653, 682

 

Sirmium 33, 43, 45-47, 50, 196, 235, 249, 330

 

×Creed of (351) 45

 

×Creed of (357) 46, 48-49, 141, 228

 

×Synod of (358) 46

 

Siscia 195

 

Sisebut, Visigothic King 566 Sisinnius, monk of Toulouse 384 Sixtus III, Pope 109, 174-175, 263-264, 306, 376

 

slavery 403-406 ×emancipation 404 ×and monasricism 405 Slavs 508, 547

 

Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna 734 Smyrna 508

 

society and the Church 393-417 ×marriage and family 394-401 ×divorce 394-395 ×virginity 396 ×orphanages 399 ×abortion 400 ×illegitimate children 400 ×social classes 401-411 ×caste system 401-402 ×slavery 403-406 ×potentes 406-408 ×private property 407 ×the poor 407-411 ×charitable work 408-411 ×culture 411-417 Socotra 468

 

Socrates, historian 184, 226

 

Soissons 525, 531, 537

 

Sopatros, Neoplatonist philosopher 7

 

Sophia, Augusta 457

 

Sophronius, Abbot 707

 

Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem 459, 492,

 

495, 634 Sozomen, historian 370 Spain 559, 561-562, 566, 568-572, 584-585, 636-637, 644, 647, 673-674, 709-710, 712 714-715, 745 ×evangelization of 209-210 ×monasticism in 385-386, 691-692, 702- 705

 

×Church in 235, 241-242, 637, 650-652, 654-659, 666-667, 671-672, 677, 679- 680, 682-683, 685, 691, 752 Spoleto 203, 575-576, 581, 582, 584-585, 693

 

Statuta ecclesiae antiqua 270, 274-275, 406 Stephen, Bishop of Antioch 37 Stephen, Bishop of Jamnia 359 Stephen, Bishop of Larissa 626, 642 Stephen I, Pope 245, 659 Stephen, Protomartyr 324, 329-331, 556,

 

659, 684 Stilicho 147, 152, 205 Studios, monastic founder 370, 486 ×Studites 369, 486, 493 stylites 188, 327, 363, 478 Subiaco 694

 

Sueves 210, 226, 229-230, 386, 524, 559,

 

562, 562-565, 571, 573, 667, 702 Sulpicius Serverus 130, 132-134, 208-209, 381

 

Sunna, Arian Bishop 711-712 Swinthila, Visigothic King 566 Syagrius, Bishop' of Autun 588, 641 Syene 182

 

Symmachus, pagan leader at Rome 203, 220, 414

 

Symmachus, Pope 432, 620-622, 638, 669 ×Symmachan Forgeries 621 Symmachus, Prefect of the City 261 Symmanhus, senator 625, 737 Symposius, Bishop of Astorga 132, 135 syneisaktos 131 synods, diocesan 650

 

Synodus Endemoma 112, 120, 245, 435, 443, 497

 

Syracuse 166, 201, 203, 455, 628, 653 Syria 63, 235, 237, 304-305, 328, 337-338, 341-342, 355, 367-368, 371, 377, 436, 458, 466, 471, 475-476, 478-479, 496, 508, 511, 513-514, 604, 707 ×evangelization 187-189, 505 ×monasticism in 362-367, 377, 485 peculiarities 363

stylites 363

 

esteem for 364

 

activities 364-367

 

and the hierarchy 366-367

 

×Jacobite Church of 475-479

 

Tabennisi 345-349, 351-352 Tagrit, Monophysite see in Persia 467 Tarragona, Synod of (516) 645, 650 Tarsus 50, 58, 62, 85, 109 Tassilo I, Duke of Bavaria 547 Tatian, Prefect 218 Teja, Count 618 Telnesin 485 Terracina 201

 

Tertullian 25, 78, 277, 385-386, 400, 614,

 

670, 716 Thagaste 141, 148, 388 Thalassius, Abbot 493, 707 Thalelaeus, monk 188 Thamugadi 137, 146, 204 Thanet, island 588 Theasius, Bishop 152 Thebaid 337, 344-345, 354 Thebesta 137 Thecla, sanctuary 190, 330 Themistius 219 Theoctistus 358

 

Theodahad, Ostrogothic King 445-446, 627 Theodelinda, Lombard Queen 577-580, 583,

 

733-734, 748 Theodo, Duke of Bavaria 548 Theodora, Augusta 434, 443-447, 457, 469,

 

474-475, 627, 640 Theodore, Abbot 341, 347, 352 Theodore, Bishop of Modena 198 Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia 72, 97-99, 110-111, 194, 188, 292, 296, 310, 312, 431, 437, 450-451, 454, 463, 467-468, 728, 730-731, 750 Theodore, Bishop of Octodurum 199 Theodore, Bishop of Pharan 459, 462, 490 Theodore, Patriarch of Alexandria 470 Theodore I, Pope 580, 612, 635, 684 Theodore Askidas, Bishop of Caesarea in

 

OAA

 

Cappadocia 448-449, 451, 453-454 Theodore of Arabia, Bishop of the Arabs 475 Theodore of Raithu 489-490 Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canter bury 530, 582, 595-596, 598-599 Theodore Rechtuni 482 Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrrhus 109-115, 117, 119, 121, 187-188, 216, 267, 315, 341, 366, 372-373, 414, 421, 431, 437, 444, 450-451, 454, 508, 604, 728-730, 734 Theodoret, historian 184, 363 Theodoric I, Frankish King 537 Theodoric II, King of Burgundy 531, 535, 588 Theodoric, Ostrogothic King 430, 432, 437, 445, 525, 528, 559-561, 568, 573, 577, 618-621, 625-626, 638, 697, 714-715, 736

 

Theodosius I, Emperor 67-71, 74, 76, 86-89, 147, 152, 182, 195, 201, 205, 218-220, 224, 228, 251, 294, 391, 415-416, 442, 496, 559 ×and Ambrose 86-89 ×public penance of 88 ×and paganism 218-219 Theodosius II, Emperor 102-106, 108-110, 112-113, 115, 174, 222, 236, 240, 244, 262, 267, 276, 359, 423, 496 Theodosius, general 145 Theodosius, monk 423, 484 Theodosius the Cenobiarch 432, 483-484 Theodotus, Bishop of Laodicea 29 Theognis, Bishop of Nicaea 26, 29 Theognitus, Bishop 134 Theognostus 122 Theonas, Bishop 18, 26 Theopaschite Trisagion 431-432, 436, 444,

 

446, 456, 624, 626 Theophanes, historian 184 Theophilus the Indian 184, 186 Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria 124-126,

 

128, 182, 191, 257, 353, 356 Theophilus, Bishop of Gothia 226 Theophilus, economus of Adana 502 Theotokos 97, 100-102, 106-108, 264, 315,

 

328, 444, 468 Thessalonica 88, 330,416, 436, 486, 502, 620 ×vicariate of 238, 255, 257, 262, 264, 266,

 

433, 436, 626,641-644 Theudarius, poenitentiarius of Vienne 681 Theudebert II, Frankish King 542, 553, 588, 702

 

Theudegisil, Visigothic King 561 Theuderic I, Frankish King 553 Theudis, Visigothic King 561-562, 577 Theveste 147 Thomas, Apostle 189 Thomas of Harqel 477 Thrace, evangelization of 193-194 Thrasamund, Vandal King 559,607-608, 711, 725

 

Three Chapters Controversy 450-456, 457, 463, 469, 489, 529, 547, 569, 577, 579, 581, 610, 610, 628, 633, 707, 715, 728- 735, 737, 750, 755 Thuringia 230, 551-552 ×parish in 648 Tiberius II, Emperor 457-458 Timasius 166 Timgad, see Thamugadi Timothy, Bishop of Alexandria 74 Timothy, Bishop of Beirut 252 Timothy, Bishop of the Arabs 189 Timothy, deacon of Alexandria 354 Timothy, Patriarch of Constantinople 431 Timothy Salofaciol, Patriarch of Alexandria 424-426

 

Timothy the Cat, Patriarch of Alexandria

 

IJNDU-X.

 

422-425, 435, 469, 615 Timothy III, Patriarch of Alexandria 437 tituh, Roman 232, 308, 681 Titus, Bishop of Bostra 58 Tmuschons, monastery 351-352 Toledo 561, 563-564, 566-569, 572-573,

 

583-584, 705 ×First Synod of (397/400) 135, 210, 276,

 

280, 406, 644-645, 647 ×Second Synod of (527/531) 571, 651 ×Third Synod of (589) 565, 583, 655, 680,

 

703, 711, 713 ×Fourth Synod of (633) 572, 650, 652,

 

654-655, 672, 677, 679, 754 ×Fifth Synod of (636) 685 ×Sixth Synod of (638) 677, 679 ×Seventh Synod of (646) 648 ×Eighth Synod of (653) 655 ×Ninth Synod of (655) 655 ×Tenth Synod of (656) 685 ×Eleventh Synod of (675) 656 ×Fifteenth Synod of (688) 570 ×Sixteenth Synod of (693) 679 ×Arian Synod of (580) 564 Tome of Leo, see Leo I, Pope Toribius, Bishop of Astorga 136 Totila, Ostrogothic King 640 Toulouse 384, 528 ×Kingdom of 528, 559-560, 562 Tours 380, 526 ×parishes in 645 ×Synod of (567) 654, 657 Trdat, King of Armenia 238 Tribonian 438

 

Trier II, 31, 33, 35, 37, 132-135, 360, 374,

 

379, 537-538, 553 Tripolitania 604, 611 Trisagion 499, 668 Tritheists 470, 490 Trophimus, Bishop of Aries 261 Turbantius, Bishop 174 Turin, Synod of (398/401) 134, 243, 280 "óana 109 ×Synod of 62

 

Tychon, Bishop of Amathus 191 Tyconius, Donatist theologian 143-144, 336,

 

741 "ó pus 461 Tyre 183, 236 ×Synod of (335) 31, 35 Tzanes 507

 

Tzat, King of Lazica 506-507 Tzittas, general 507

 

Ulfilas, Bishop of the Goths 193-194, 227- 229

 

×translation of Bible 227-229

 

Unilas, Bishop of the Goths 194

 

Union of 433 108-112, 114, 120, 263,427,

 

450, 463-464 Union of 519 435, 442-443 Union of 633 459, 471, 492 Ursacius, Bishop of Singidunum 31, 40-41, 47-48,59

 

Ursinus, antipope 250, 254 usury 408

 

Vaison, Synod of (442) 243

 

×Synod of (529) 646, 668, 710

 

Valence, Synod of (375) 243, 379

 

×Synod of (528) 727

 

Valencia, Synod of (549) 667

 

Valens, Bishop of Mursa 31,40-41, 47-48, 59

 

Valens, Emperor 61-64, 67, 69, 85-86, 183,

 

227-228, 391 ×recovery of Homoian Arianism 61-63 ×death of 67

 

×position in the Church 85-86 Valentine, Bishop of Bergell 199 Valentinian I, Emperor 61, 144, 195, 204,

 

218, 302, 379, 399 Valentinian II, Emperor 68, 86 Valentinian III, Emperor 115, 266-267, 276,

 

284-285, 604, 608 Valerian, Bishop of Cimiez 319 Valerian, Bishop of Iconium 372 Valerius Maximus, Prefect 360 Valerius of Bierzo 573 Vandals 159, 206-207, 210, 229, 238, 265, 526, 559, 602-608, 614, 647, 691, 693, 702, 706-711, 714, 716, 752 Vatican basilica 10, 43, 246, 333, 376, 621, 660

 

×schola 664-665 Vegesela 141

 

Venantius Fortunatus 656, 672 Veranus, Bishop of Lyon (?) 281 Veranus, Bishop of Vence 382 Vercelli 275, 281, 378, 393 Verina, Augusta 424 Verona 197, 379, 577-578, 659 Vetranio, Bishop of Tomi 193 vicariate, papal 238, 255, 266, 636-644 ×of Aries 637-641, 644 ×in Spain 636-637

 

×of Thessalonica 255, 257, 266, 641-644 Victor, Abbot ofTabennisi 353 Victor, Bishop of Tunnuna 610 Victor, Bishop of Vita 206, 605, 707, 709 Victor I, Pope 245 Victorian, Abbot 703

 

Victricius, Bishop of Rouen 208, 211, 214,

 

256, 381 Vienna 196 Vienne 638 Vigilantius, priest 393 Vigilius, Bishop 198

 

Vigilius, Pope 136, 433, 452-453, 455, 562, 610, 626, 627-628, 633, 640, 642, 665, 667-668, 682, 731 ×and the Three Chapters 451-455 ×Judicatum 452, 454 ×First Constitutum 454 ×Second Constitutum 455 Vincent 382 ×Commonitorium 382

Vincent, Roman priest 24 Vincent of Lerins 177 Vincent of Zaragoza, Saint 331, 556, 570 Virgil, Bishop of Aries 640-641 virgines subintroductae 503 Visigoths 209-211, 224, 226-227, 230, 235, 386, 405, 525, 528-529, 558-562, 564, 568, 570-573, 577, 583-584, 624, 638, 652, 656, 686, 702, 710-711, 715 ×conversion to Homoian Arianism 227-229 ×defeat of Valens 227 ×organization of Church 229, 649-650 ×mission to other Germans 230 ×Arian Synod of (580) 713 ×conversion to Catholicism 565-573, 637,

 

655, 752 ×National Church 565-573 vita communis 377, 388 Vitalian, Pope 595, 664 Vitalian, rebel 432, 434, 436 Vitalis, priest 96 Vitus, Roman priest 24 Vivarium, monastery 697, 739, 743 Volventius, Proconsul 132 Vouille, battle of 528 Vulgata 254

 

Wearmouth, monastery 599, 665 Wacho, Lombard King 574, 577 Wachtang I, King of the Georgians 190 Walaric 539 Waldebert, Abbot 543 Walthari, Lombard Prince 574 Wandregisil 540 wergeld 532, 557

 

Wessex, Kingdom of 590, 592-593, 598

 

Whitby, monastery 601 ×Synod of (664) 594-595 Wihtred, King of Kent 598 Wilfrid, Abbot of Ripon 595, 598, 600, 685

 

Willibrord, Bishop of Utrecht 551, 601 Winchester 595

 

Wini, Bishop of Winchester 593 Witenagemot 590, 597 Worcester 596 Worms 550-551, 554

 

Xenaia, Bishop of Mabbug 430-432, 477

 

Yarmuk, battle of the 513 Yezr, Catholkus of Armenia 481 York 211, 521, 585, 589, 591-592, 595, 599, 634

 

"Young Nicenes" 64-67, 70, 73

 

Zachary, Pope 666 Zaragoza 705

 

×Synod of (380) 129-132, 210, 306, 385 Zeno, Bishop of Seville 636 Zeno, Bishop of Verona 198, 315, 332, 379, 659

 

Zeno, Emperor 240, 424-429, 435, 457, 480,

 

496, 605, 615-616, 708, 730 Zocomas, Sheik 186 Zoilus, Patriarch of Alexandria 469 Zosimus, historian 390 Zosimus, Pope 169, 196, 259-261, 270,

 

II"* L/CA

 

272-273, 279, 376, 637-638, 649, 653 ×and Pelagianism 169-170, 259 ×Tractoria 170, 172, 174 ×and Apiarius 260-261 ×and Patroclus of Aries 260-261

i h

65 See Eusebius, Vita Constantini 4, 60-71.

 

60 See J. Speigl, "Der Pelagianismus auf dem Konzil von Ephesus," AHC 1 (1969), 1-14; on the question of an eventual favoring of Pelagianism by Nestorius see, among others, M. T. Disdier, "Le pelagianisme au concile d'Ephese," EO 34 (1931), 314-333.

 

6 Socrates, HE 7, 15: see K. Prachter, Pauly-Wissowa IX, 1, 242-249-

 

39 Apophthegm. Patrum, no. 492 (Abbot Macarius); no. 1087 lat.: J. Leipoldt, "Schenute von Atripe" (TU 25, 1, Leipzig 1903), 175-182.

40

5S W. M. Ramsay, "The Church of Lycaonia in the 4th Century," Luke the Physician

 

(reprint ed. Grand Rapids 1956); also the text in H. Leclercq, "Lycaonie," DACL IX,

 

2787-2897. For Phrygia see V. Schultze, II, 397-477, and H. Leclercq, DACL XIV, 758-806.

 

7 Thus the late Vita Parthenii (PG 114, 1348); on Chrysostom, see C. Kukula,

8

44 Cf. A Lumpe, "Zur Geschichte der Worter concilium und synodus in der antiken Latinitat," AHP 2 (1970), 1-21.

 

23 De cat. rud. 26, 50; Ep. 98, 5; see J. C. Didier, AiSi? 22 (1965), 79-90.

 

26 J. A. Jungmann, "Von der 'Eucharistie' zur 'Messe,'" ZKTh 89 (1967), 29-40. Basic for all particular questions on the development of the Mass liturgy is J. A. Jungmann, Missarum solemnia; H. Zwinggi, "Der Wortgottdienst bei Augustinus," LJ 20 (1970), 90-113; 129-140.

 

27 H. Engberding, "Alleluja," RAC I, 216-233, and A. G. Martimort, Kyriakon II, Festschrift J. Quasten (Miinster 1970), 811-834.

 

291 tin. Eger., 24; Const. Apost. 8, 6.

 

30 A full form is preserved in the so-called Deprecatio Gelasii; see B. Capelle, RBen 46 (1934), 126-144, and C. Callewaert, RHE 38 (1942), 20-45.

 

31 Chr. Mohrmann, "Sur l'histoire de praefari-praefatio," VigChr 7 (1953), 1-15 ×Etudes sur le latin des chretiens III (Rome 1965), 291-305.

 

32 A. Stuiber, "Libelli sacramentorum romani," Theophaneia 6 (Bonn 1950).

 

50 Gregory Nazianzen, Ep. 231 and 232; John Chrysostom, In Genes, bom. 48, 6.

 

57 Athanasius, Easter Letter of 341, appendix. Jerome, Ep. 24, speaks of the voluntary nature of the fast. Socrates, HE 5, 22, mentions a fast at Rome in the three weeks before Easter.

 

58 List of pertinent sermons of Augustine in S. Poque, SChr 116, 352-354 (about 30); the twelve sermons of Leo I on Lent: SChr 49.

 

66 Cf. especially H. Bacht, "Monchtum und Kirche," Sent ire Ecclesiam, 115-122; also P. Tamburrino, Aspetti ecclesiologici del monachesimo pacomiano del secolo IV (dissertation, Rome 1968).

 

67 Vies copies, 3-5, 66-69 (Lefort).

 

177 See G. Dagron, op. cit., 261-72.

 

178 The canons in ACQ II, 1, 2, 159ff., and in COD 63-75. On the entire matter L. Ueding, Chalkedon II (Wiirzburg 1953), 569-676, is fundamental.

 

50 Const. Apost. 4, 6, 4; Chrysostom, In ep. ad Eph. hom. 22; Cone. Illib., can. 5; Ambrose, Ep. 2, 31; Augustine, De civ. dei 14, 14-15; Expos, ep. ad Gal. 64; Maximus of Turin, Sermo 36, 3; Peter Chrysologus, Sermo 26.

 

82 F. G. Maier, Augustin und das antike Rom (Stuttgart 1955), 21-25.

 

99 M. Bieber, The History of Greek and Roman Theatre (Princeton, 2nd ed. 1961); G. Ville, Les jeux des gladiateurs dans l'empire chretien (Paris 1900).

 

24 G. Bardy, "Severe d'Antioche," DThC XIV 1988-2000; J. Lebon, Le monophysisme severien (Louvain 1909); id., "La christologie du monophysisme severien," Chalkedon I, 425-580. More literature in Beck, 387-390.

 

6 Text in E. Schwartz, Vigiliusbriefe (Munich 1940), 10-15.

 

11 J. Leipoldt, Schenute von Atripe und die Entstehung des national-dgyptischen Christen- tums (Leipzig 1923).

 

7 Beck, 148-232.

 

6 "How should we still preach the faith to you, who have come to the faith which you already glimpsed before your conversion without a preacher?" (Avitus, Ep. 46, MGAuc- tant VI, 1).

 

7 E. Ewig, "Das Bild Constantins d. Gr. in den ersten Jahrhunderten des abendlandi schen Mittelalters," HJ 75 (1956), 4, note 17.

 

14 "To whom belongs eternal merit with God, if not to the truly Catholic King Recared? . . . He truly deserves the reward of an apostle who has fulfilled an apostolic function" (ibid.). Cf. E. Ewig, "Zum christlichen Konigsgedanken," Vortrage und Forschungen 3, Das Konigtum. Seine geistigen und rechtlichen Grundlagen (Lindau-Constance 1956), 29ff.

 

16 Perctarit and his wife built Saint Agatha at Pavia and outside the city a basilica in honor of Mary in the Lombard cemetery (G. Fasoli, Longobardi, 138).

 

17 G. Fasoli, op. cit., 156.

 

21 The authenticity is disputed. Cf. R. Elze, "Die eiserne Krone in Monza," Herrscbaftszeichen und Stantssymbolik (Schriften der MG 13), in the negative, and the recension of G. P. Bognetti, Archivio storico lornbardo, Serie ottava, V (1954-55), 1-10, in the affirmative. The context of the testimonies favors the genuineness.

 

7 "The King had indeed learned from his teachers, from whom he received salvation, that the service of Christ is voluntary, and must not be compulsory" (Hist. eccl. I, 26).

 

8 " . . .so that, if some joys were preserved for them externally, they might the more easily assent to the inner joys. For it is doubtless impossible at the same to cut away everything from hard hearts, because whoever seeks to mount to the highest place goes up by degrees and steps, not by leaps" (Hist. eccl. I, 30). The magnanimity with which Gregory took into account the circumstances of the mission also in matters of ecclesias tical discipline and in the law of marriage becomes evident from his responsa transmitted by Bede (Ep. XI, 56a), which according to the more recent investigations of English and Belgian scholars must probably be regarded as genuine, except for a few interpolations (on the controversy with S. Brechter, cf. the literature for this chapter).

 

2SMansi 1, 1056-1059, 1171-1174.

 

32 Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II, 2, 3; Coll. Avell., nos. 230-321; Ferrandus, Vita s.

33

Fulgentii, 9, 13, 17-18; Ennodius, Ep. 2, 14.

 

52 See finally M. Dali' Arche, Scomparsa del Cristianesimo ed espansione dell'lslam nell'Africa settentrionale (Rome 1967).

 

86PL 75, 509-1162; 76, 9-782\SChr 32 (1950); SChr, 212 (1974).

 

105 Ep. de subitanea poenitentia, MGAuctant VI, 2, 30; cf. Beck, 201.

 

106 Fernandez Alonso, 541.

 

107 Beck, 2 2Of.

 

50 On the development and peculiar character of Irish-Scottish monasticism, see supra, Chapter 33.

 

62 A. Manrique, "La Regla de s. Agustin en Espana durante los primeros siglos de su existencia," CD 182 (1969), 485-513, especially 488, 490.

 

64Regula Monachorum, PL 83, 867-904, and BAC 321, 79-125; on its sources see R. Susin AicubieiK,Salmanticensis 14(1967), 371-394. Synodal decrees on monasticism: Concil. Hispa. II, canons 10 and 11; Concil. Tolet. IV, canons 48-53, 56.

 

52 Contra Fast. CChr 91, nos. 643, 697, 774.

 

6. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY: D. Claude, Die Byzantinische Stadt im 6. Jh. (Munich 1969); G. Downey, A History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest (Princeton 196l);D. J. Consrantelos, Byzantine Philanthropy and Social Welfare (New Brunswick, N.J. 1968).

 

8. MONASTICISM: A. -J. Festugiere, Ursprunge christlicher Frommigkeit. Bildung oder Heiligkeit im Monchtum des altchristlichen Orient (Basel 1963).

 
 
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